History 1020 Weeks 2 and 3 notes!
History 1020 Weeks 2 and 3 notes! HIST 1020 Mike Smith
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddy Grace on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 Mike Smith at Auburn University taught by Mike Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see History 1020 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
The Origins of the French Revolution Jan 20 Wednesday January 20 2016 802 AM 0 Why France 0 One of the largest wealthiest important European kingdoms o gt its decisions impacted the many other countries 0 Old Regime France and Absolute Monarchy 0 Old regime France 0 Describes the government in France prior to revolution 0 Absolute Monarch The French Church was weak against the French monarch French kings craved so much power over their people that was unparalleled to other countries 0 Louis XIV The Sun King Enjoyed fabulous wealth and absolute power did what he wanted had a huge army France39s Absolute Monarchy Image versus Reality 0 Estates 0 France was broken into a social order that is referred to as estates 0 Basic social division is three groups kind had to share a little power with rst and second states a Roman Catholic Church King39s orders could not con ict with Church39s orders Being a member of this state came with privileges exemption of taxation and allowed to extract tax from French people Owned huge amounts of land NobH y People who served in kings armies and also served in government Duke count marquis Given of cer positions in armies not in the forefront of the battle Hold government of ce 0 Everyone else 8090 of the population No special privileges Have to do dirty work French army Have no real say in what39s going on in government 0 Parliaments Had about 13 parliaments in the case of France it was more equivalent to a judicial court 0 Had to enforce various laws Anytime king gave a command parliaments were required to sign it to make it valid and were in charge of implementing his orders O O O 0 Crisis 0 o o 0 They could protest but king was capable of overriding by appearing in front of parliament and saying that it was his rule Seven Years War 17561763 France vs England Rush to nd colonies rst For trade control France lost a ton of land Do they want Canada or Haiti Chose Haiti because of sugar coffee and indigo Otherwise known as Sans Dominique Manufactured goods came from France Vital economic Engine for France Middle class is growing 0 Social structure changing because economic structure is changing Merchants became more prominent Some were very wealthy some more than nobility Social distinction blurred AngloFrench commercial Treaty English goods were cheaper Put lots of French manufacturers out of business Agriculture is still important bulk of wealth Who owns lands very important Primarily church and nobility 60 Most farmers are tenant farmers which means they pay rent Under control of church and nobles Right to force peasants to do extra tasks under certain services 0 Church and nobles double and triple rent and enforce strict laws Side jobs are threatened because of cheap English goods Regulated by government Food shortage Farmer39s riotgrain riots Cultural changes O 0000 Ideas and expectations Economic roots Tade increasing Merchants thriving Growing middle class 0 Leisure time education and reading 0 This led to a politicized public Expansion of literacy Growing wealth Increased communication Market for printed material 0 Books magazines newpapers PRINT CAPITALISM Publishing boom READING AND DISCUSSIONS Put educated magazines and books in salons to reach the wealthy and prominent women this led to Gossip politics business Gathering of great minds Debate of issues People are more aware of social political economic problems 0 Desire to participate in politics 0 Free associations groups formed by middle class looked on with suspicion because they excluded church and noble groups Ex Free masons King is scarednervous Wants to suppress the public Censor and ban public opinion Realized culture was changing DID NOT want to share power Had to acknowledge public opinion 0 Money Problems 0 Louis XVI 0 000 0 Finance defeated several times Great debt owed to rich merchants and bankers across Europe D Jaques Necker swiss protestant very good banker King Louis XVI hires him to handle nances to convince Europe that he is serious about paying his debt 0 Establish con dence in French Finances Compete Redu Au Roi 1781 Documents French Finances Never been done before because Louis XVI is an absolute monarch French public can see exactly how their money is being spent All of this sparks debate but eventually brightens public expectations 0 NECKER Tries to become an astute banker He lies and says that there is more money coming in that being soent but actually the opposite was happening The French government is struggling with nances but the public is unaware He is not favored by nobles and is soon replaced by CHARLES CALONNE 0 Who s not paying taxes 0 Church and nobles The idea is to tax them through land taxes and collect more moneyremember church and nobles are the only people who own land so it would be a direct target to them 0 Assembly of notables 144 of the best men to argue about property tax 0 mostly nobles who will be largely affected by tax this means the argument may be biased they also believe necker39s book 0 assembly vs callone guy who replaced necker huge debate quotwe39re not quali ed to speak for all of Francequot 0 Get body together the public Leads to Estates General 0 Meeting of advisors and representatives Consultative body NOT legislative Did not meet regularly only when king declares Centuries would go without a meeting All three estates included Voting done by three groups D 3 votes Faulty third estates could be outvoted by a small percent 0 Talk of making this a permanent legislative body 0 New Format One man one vote Abbe Sieyes o Clergymen BUT sympathetic towards third estate 0 quotwhat is the third estatequot everything 0 work wealth get rid of clergy and nobles 0 better without it 0 make third largest in government BUT Estates general makes no change 0 Major ghts Wants to change voting process Sieyes o quotlet39s just ignore the church and nobilityquot 0 First Phase of the Revolution 0 Estates general may 5 1789 0 National assembly june 13th 1789 Third population group voted to change taxes symbolic move to claim power for themselves Lousi 16th takes back control and tries to shut national assembly 0 Popular sovereignty 0 Tennis court oath june 20 1789 Louis shut down meeting rooms so the national assembly went to tennis court quotwe are going to continue to challenge the power of the kingquot quotwe are not going to stop until we draw a constitutionquot a written document that outlines the fundamental laws of the land including details of how government will be structured limiting the power of the king 0 Constitutional monarchy Want to limit power of king Come up with power sharing agreement parliament legislative power 0 The people enter the fray o Storming of the bastille july 14th 1789 ln reaction to hearing about king Louis putting soldiers in the street People began attacking government of cers Bastille is a large fortress in the middle of the city they stormed it to get access to guns and ammunition beheaded commander of fortess and deemed him a traitor of the people began to demolish the batille Showed that there were many supporters of the national assembly Gave Louis 16th the hesitation to not ght the national assembly with force makes him realize he has to deal with it This is one of the rst times the people became involved with government people are intervening directly with an issue 0 Sans Culottes The name that the common people of paris in support of the revolution began to adopt WITHOUT fancy clothes 0 Emigr The eeing of the nobility and upper class from the violence 0 The end of the beginning 0 August Decrees 1789 Members of clergy attend this meeting They destroy the French government in one night Clergy members stand up and say they will pay taxes and are subject to the same punishments and laws that everyone else have By the time they are done they are all considered equal under the law No distinction between the various estates 0 Declaration of the rights of man and citizen August 26th 1789 O Next step begin to write a constitution Basic outline of their philosophy First clear statement of the idea of human rights all individuals should enjoy certain kinds of basic rights Louis XVI king of the French Role is redefined no linger god appointed Not king of france king of the French The second revolution 0 O O O 0 France seemed to be at peace only problem is the basic fundamental issue is the French government nances Assignats French government is seizing property of the roman catholic church to pay back their debts Nannalgoods Since funds for government come from the people they quotbelongquot to the nation Didn39t try to work with roman catholic church Civil constitution of the clergy july 12 1790 Requires members of clergy roman catholic preiests to pledge their loyalty to the French government to remain legitimate Refractory priests War and political polarization 0 O O O O Emigres External threats on france39s borders Varennes june 1791 King louis Xvi attempts to ee france but border guards catch him Shows he does not support national assembly Declaration of Phillnitz august 1791 Austria and Prussia Louis XVI is married to marie antionette who is sister to king of Austria King of Austria says they they will be willing to go to war with france if the national assembly attempts to hurt king Louis Now to be against the national assembly you are also against the French people because foreigners are telling them what to do Maximillien Robespierre Leads jacobins Montagnards jacobins Oppose war because they fear that france will lose and it will destroy the constitutional monarchy Jaques pierre brissot Leads group in the national assembly Girodins Group within national assembly Death of a king birth of a republic O War declared on Austria and Prussia april 1792 National convention September 1792 French republic Battle of valmy La marseillaise Execution of lousi xvi for treason
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