BZ 120 Week 2 Notes
BZ 120 Week 2 Notes BZ 120
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenny Bourbois on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 120 at Colorado State University taught by Steingraeber, David A in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Principles of Plant Biology in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
1/27/16 INTRO TO BOTANY Botany - the scientific study of plants and "plant-like" organisms Plants are absolutely essential to the continued existence of life on earth Autotrophic - “self-feeding" Green plants are autotrophic - they make their own food in photosynthesis Photosynthesis - CO2 + H2O + light > food (sugars) + O2 Animals are heterotrophic (“other-feeding”) - dependent on plants as energy source Plants (autotrophs) are primary producers - base of food chains CO2 is a greenhouse gas - it absorbs and holds heat in the atmosphere, plants help control CO2 Plants absorb carbon and store it in their bodies. This is why they can serve as food for other organisms and why we can use them as sources of energy: 1. biofuels 2. fossil fuels - energy was “fixed” by plants photosynthesizing when they’re alive 200-400 mya. Plants serve as the source of non food materials, including medicine. Aspirin was first contained from the bark of willow trees. Humans find plants aesthetically pleasing. Knowledge about plants will greatly enhance your understanding and enjoyment of the natural world. HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF BOTANY Greek philosophers named and classified plants Theophrastus - the “father of botany”, a student of Aristotle, wrote several books on plants, introduced several key concepts regarding plants: The “parts” (organs) making up the body of a plant: Stems - the elongated above ground axes of a plant body Leaves - organ that attaches to the side of a stem, often flattened Roots - the elongated, below ground axes of a plant body Plant growth forms: Tree - a woody plant with one main stem Shrub - a woody plant with more than one main stem Herb - non-woody plant Vine - a plant that grows on something else for mechanical support, it doesn’t support itself Plant lifespans: Annual - a plant that lives for only one year or growing season. It reproduces (flowers) once, then dies. Biennial - a plant that lives for two years or growing seasons. It reproduces (flowers) only in the second growing season, and then dies. Perennial - a plant that lives for many years, reproducing (flowering) repeatedly. Greeks and Romans were interested in knowing in plants because they used them as medicines. The medicinal use of plants was the primary impetus to the early development of botany. Dioscorides - doctor in the Roman army in the first century A.D., his book Materia Medica, was the primary reference for physicians for over 1500 years Books by ancient master were copied and passed from generation to generation, especially in monasteries. Doctrine of Signatures: if a plant resembles a part of the body, it can be used to treat ailments of that part of the body. 1/29/16 Change in attitude and orientation beginning in the late 15th century - more direct observation of plants, rather than just accepting what ancient masters had written Development of the printing press in the 1450s led to the proliferation of herbals - books describing plants and their medicinal uses (what they look like, where they grow, how ti use them as medicine) Development of lenses and microscopes led to more detailed info about the “hidden world" NAMING AND CLASSIFYING PLANTS 2 types of names given to organisms: 3. Common name - names used in everyday colloquial language 4. Scientific name - names used in formal scientific communication Problems with common names: 1. Different kinds of plants can have the same common name, leading to confusion. 2. The same plant can have more than one common name, which leads to confusion. To prevent such confusion, botanists use “scientific names: Use of scientific name dates from Europe in the Middle Ages; names are all in Latin (italicized). Convention in middle ages: Genus + descriptive phase Scientific names simplified by a Swedish botanist, Carlous Linnaeus, in his 1753 book Species Planetarium. He introduced the binomial system: Genus + 1 word Scientific name format - name is italicized, Genus is capitalized but the species epithet is not. Closely related species are grouped together in the same genus. Similarly, closely related genera are grouped together in the same family. Hierarchy of Classification - species are grouped into larger and larger groups to indicate relatedness. 3 Domains: 1. D. Archaea - cells lack nuclei 2. D. Bacteria - cells lack nuclei 3. D. Eukarya - cells w nuclei Domain Eukarya broken into 4 kingdoms: 1. K. Protista (protists) - “simple” organisms with mix of plant like and animal like characteristics. e.g. protozoans (amoeba), algae 2. K. Plantae (plants) - photosynthetic organisms w complex multicellular bodies 3. K. Fungi (fungi) - plant like organisms that are heterotrophic e.g. mushrooms and molds 4. K. Animalia (animals) - heterotrophic organisms with complex, multicellular bodies
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