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PSY 100 Ch2 notes

by: Anna Smith

PSY 100 Ch2 notes PSY 100-003

Anna Smith
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

Pysch ch 2 is a little more in depth than the first chapter. It includes the scientific method of psychology and some experimental vocab and concepts.
Introduction to Psychology - SB
Kellie Pierson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Smith on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-003 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Kellie Pierson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology - SB in Psychlogy at Northern Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
PSY 100 CH 2 Psychology’s Scientific Method ­ Science is a process or method to understand the world. It’s not what  it investigates but how it investigates  1. Observe­ Step1: observe some phenomenon (curiosity, variables,  theory) A. A theory is more general 2. Hypothesize­ Step 2: formulate hypotheses and predictions­ forms  a basis of research study (testable prediction, derived from theory A. Hypotheses is more specific 3. Test­ Step 3: test through empirical research (operational definition of variables, data collection, analyze data using statistical  procedures) A. Operational definition­ provides an objective description of how  a variable is going to be measure and observed in a particular  study 4. Conclusions­ Step 4: draw conclusions (replication of results) 5. Evaluate­ Step 5: evaluate the theory (change the theory?) Research Setting ­ “Artificial World”­ lab setting A. Controlled setting ­ “Read World”­ natural setting  A. Naturalistic observation Need to know: 1. Descriptive: observing and recording behavior. Cannot prove cause  and affect ­ Goal: describing a phenomenon 2. Correlational: goal­ identify relationships, does not mean it has  causation ­ Correlational coefficient: r ­ Strength of relationship: magnitude ­ Direction of relationship: +/­  ­ Scatter plots show the data 3. Experimental ­ Goal: determine causation ­ Experiments are one of the few research designs that allow you to  directly test why something happens, that is, to test for cause and  effect A. Random assignment B. Manipulation­ experimental group/independent variable C. Controlled setting­ control group D. MAKES SURE EVERYONE HAS AN EQUAL CHANCE  ­ Observe/measure any effect A. Different between groups­ dependent variable  B. Independent variable­ manipulated in experiments C. Dependent variable­ the result of the manipulation of the  independent variable/measuring change  4. Validity ­ External validity A. Representative of real world issues? B. Do results generalize to the real world? ­ Internal validity A. If the independent varable changes the results   5. Bias and Expectations ­ Experimenter bias ­ Research participant bias ­ Placebo effect­ has no effect on your behavior/convinces themselves  they are being manipulated ­ Double­blind experiment 6. Analyzing and interpreting data ­ Statistics­ mathematics methods used to report data ­ Descriptive­ describe/summarize ­ Inferential­ draw conclusion A. Bridge between sample and population B. Does data confirm the hypothesis C. Statistical significance D. Alpha= .05 (confidence level) 7. Research Ethics ­ Research participants have rights ­ APA guidelines A. Informed consent  B. Confidentiality  C. Debriefing  D. Deception­ benefits outweigh anticipated costs  ­ IRB 8. Animal research in psych ­ Animal research has benefitted humans 9. Cautions about experiments ­ Avoid overgeneralizing results ­ Exercise caution in applying group trends to individual experience ­ Question casual interferences ­ Look for converging evidence ­ Consider the source 1. Non­experimental research  Descriptive research (observations, surveys and interviews, testing, case  studies) Correlational research­ when you compare two relationships   2. Experimental research­ conducts to get cause and affects Applied ­ Counseling  Basic ­ School settings ­ Researchers 


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