PSY 100 Ch2 notes
PSY 100 Ch2 notes PSY 100-003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Smith on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-003 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Kellie Pierson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology - SB in Psychlogy at Northern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
PSY 100 CH 2 Psychology’s Scientific Method Science is a process or method to understand the world. It’s not what it investigates but how it investigates 1. Observe Step1: observe some phenomenon (curiosity, variables, theory) A. A theory is more general 2. Hypothesize Step 2: formulate hypotheses and predictions forms a basis of research study (testable prediction, derived from theory A. Hypotheses is more specific 3. Test Step 3: test through empirical research (operational definition of variables, data collection, analyze data using statistical procedures) A. Operational definition provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measure and observed in a particular study 4. Conclusions Step 4: draw conclusions (replication of results) 5. Evaluate Step 5: evaluate the theory (change the theory?) Research Setting “Artificial World” lab setting A. Controlled setting “Read World” natural setting A. Naturalistic observation Need to know: 1. Descriptive: observing and recording behavior. Cannot prove cause and affect Goal: describing a phenomenon 2. Correlational: goal identify relationships, does not mean it has causation Correlational coefficient: r Strength of relationship: magnitude Direction of relationship: +/ Scatter plots show the data 3. Experimental Goal: determine causation Experiments are one of the few research designs that allow you to directly test why something happens, that is, to test for cause and effect A. Random assignment B. Manipulation experimental group/independent variable C. Controlled setting control group D. MAKES SURE EVERYONE HAS AN EQUAL CHANCE Observe/measure any effect A. Different between groups dependent variable B. Independent variable manipulated in experiments C. Dependent variable the result of the manipulation of the independent variable/measuring change 4. Validity External validity A. Representative of real world issues? B. Do results generalize to the real world? Internal validity A. If the independent varable changes the results 5. Bias and Expectations Experimenter bias Research participant bias Placebo effect has no effect on your behavior/convinces themselves they are being manipulated Doubleblind experiment 6. Analyzing and interpreting data Statistics mathematics methods used to report data Descriptive describe/summarize Inferential draw conclusion A. Bridge between sample and population B. Does data confirm the hypothesis C. Statistical significance D. Alpha= .05 (confidence level) 7. Research Ethics Research participants have rights APA guidelines A. Informed consent B. Confidentiality C. Debriefing D. Deception benefits outweigh anticipated costs IRB 8. Animal research in psych Animal research has benefitted humans 9. Cautions about experiments Avoid overgeneralizing results Exercise caution in applying group trends to individual experience Question casual interferences Look for converging evidence Consider the source 1. Nonexperimental research Descriptive research (observations, surveys and interviews, testing, case studies) Correlational research when you compare two relationships 2. Experimental research conducts to get cause and affects Applied Counseling Basic School settings Researchers
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