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PSY 100 Ch3 notes

by: Anna Smith

PSY 100 Ch3 notes PSY 100-003

Anna Smith
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

The third chapter of this course includes the biological functions of the body as well as the brain. This chapter is more in depth than the first two so be sure to look the notes thoroughly!
Introduction to Psychology - SB
Kellie Pierson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Smith on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-003 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Kellie Pierson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology - SB in Psychlogy at Northern Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
PSY 100 CH 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior Nervous System ­ Complex ­ Integrated ­ Adaptable ­ Electrochemical transmission Nervous system: Pathways ­ Nerves carry info ­ Afferent means going towards  ­ Efferent means going away Nervous System: divisions ­ Central  A. Brain and spinal cord ­ Peripheral A. Somatic­ sensory nerves and motor nerves B. Autonomic­ sympathetic and parasympathetic Nervous System: Cells ­ Glial cells A. Provide support and nutrition ­ Neurons A. Information processing­ computing and communicating Neurons: Structure ­ Cell body is where the central nucleus is  ­ Dendrites ­ Axons ­ Myelin sheath Neural impulse ­ Negatively + positively charged ions ­ Polarization ­ Resting potential Synapses and Neurotransmitters ­ Synaptic transmission A. Electrical impulse is converted into a chemical signal B. Axon vesicle releases neurotransmitter into gap C. Dendrite receptor site detects neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters ­ Neurotransmitters carry info across the synaptic gap to the next  neuron ­ Acetylcholine A. Muscle action, learning, memory B. Black widow venom increases Ach levels C. Botox decreases Ach levels ­ GABA A. Anxiety decreases GABA levels ­ Glutamate A. Excitatory B. Learning and memory C. Involved in many psychological disorders ­ Norepinephrine  A. Stress and mania increases norepinephrine levels B. Depression decreases norepinephrine levels C. Regulates sleep states in conjunction with Ach ­ Dopamine A. Voluntary movement B. Reward anticipation C. Stimulant drugs; activate dopamine receptors ­ Serotonin A. Regulates of sleep, mood, attention, learning B. Depression decreases serotonin levels C. Prozac increases serotonin levels ­ Oxytocin A. Botj a hormone and a neurotransmitter B. Related to onset of lactation in new mothers C. Related to attachment/emotional bonds Studying the brain ­ Brain lesioning A. Naturally occurring or induced ­ Staining  ­ Electrical recording Brain Imaging ­ X­ray ­ CT scan ­ PET ­ MRI ­ fMRI Hindbrain Parts of the brain ­ brainstem A. medulla­ control breathing, regulate reflexes B. pons­ sleep and arousal ­ cerebellum A. motor coordination Midbrain ­ stereotyped behavior patterns  Forebrain Limbic System ­ memory and emotion A. amygdala­ discriminated objects needed for survival/emotional  awareness and expression B. hippocampus­ formation and recall of memories Thalamus ­ relay system for much sensory info Basal Ganglia ­ coordinated of voluntary movements  Hypothalamus ­ eating, drinking, sexual behaviors ­ regulate body’s internal state ­ emotion, stress, reward Cerebral cortex ­ four lobes A. occipital (vision) C. Temporal (hearing, language processing, memory) D. Frontal (intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles) E. Parietal (spatial location, attention, motor control) Somatosensory, motor, and association cortex ­ Somatosensory cortex A. body sensations/touch ­ Motor cortex B. Voluntary movements C. Planning and control Split brain research ­ Corpus callosum ­ Large bundle of axons that connects the two hemispheres of the  brain Hemispheres of the cortex ­ Hemispheric specialization of function A. Left hemisphere­ verbal processing, speech, grammar B. Right hemisphere­ spatial perception Endocrine system ­ Set of glands that regulates the body by secreting hormones Brain damage and Plasticity ­ Recovery from brain damage depends on A. Age of the individual B. Extent of the damage ­ Repairing the damaged brain A. Collateral sprouting B. Substitution of function C. Neurogenesis D. Brain tissue grafts


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