New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Abnormal Psych Week 1

by: Cody Notetaker

Abnormal Psych Week 1 Psychology 331

Cody Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Continuation of notes
Abnormal Psychology
Benjamin Rodriguez
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Abnormal Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cody Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 331 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Benjamin Rodriguez in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

Similar to Psychology 331 at SIU


Reviews for Abnormal Psych Week 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/28/16
THE BIOLOGICAL – GENETIC PARADIGM January 26, 2016  Paradigm o Set of basic assumptions governing: 1. How to conceptualize and study a subject 2. Gather and interpret relevant information  Until recently, scientists of a given place and time had a single model of abnormality influenced by culture/beliefs (Demonology, 4 humors etc.) o Today several models are used – conflicting o Can a single model explain al aspects of abnormality? BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM  “Medical Model” or Disease Model”  Mental disordres caused by biological factors. o E.g., neurotransmitters, brain malfunction  Biological processes include: o Heredity o Imbalances of brain chemistry o Disordered development of brain structures o Other biological systems  E.g., neuroendocrine system, HPA Axis BEHAVIOR GENETICS  STUDIES HOW HEREDITY PLAYS A ROLE IN CHARACERISTICS AND BEHAVIOR o Genotype-The genetic material you inherit o Phenotype- The observable characteristics and behaviors you exhibit. o  Diathesis-stress model o Phenotype results from an interaction between genotype and environment  E.g., Poor nutrition may inhibit growth o Most mental disorders are not directly inherited.  Underlying genetic vulnerability plus environmental stressor may trigger development of disorder FOUR METHODS OF UNCOVERING GENETIC INFLUENCES 1. Family Method  The closer the blood relationship you have with someone, the more genetic material you have in common o First-degree relatives  Parents/siblings – 50% shared genetic material o Second-degree relatives  Aunts/Uncles/Grandparents – 25% shared genetic material  If a mental disorder is genetically influenced, relatives who are genetically close to proband or index case, are more likely than those who are genetically distant, to also have the disorder. 2. Twin studies  Two types of twins o Monozygotic (MZ) – Identical o Dizygotic (DZ) – Fraternal  If MZ twin pairs are more concordant for disorder than DZ twin pairs, the disorder has a heritable component o E.g., schizophrenia  Equal environment assumption o Environmental factors may influence the development of a disorder are equal for both types of twin pairs. 3. Adoptees Method  Look at ways that children who are adopted very early in life are similar to their biological parents.  When children raised by adoptive parents are more like biological parents = evidence of genetic predisposition 4. Linkage Analysis  Goal is to uncover the gene involved in the disorder  Blood samples are taken from families in which several members have a particular disorder.  Genetic marker o A characteristic whose genetics are well understood.  When disorder co-occurs with genetic marker, we have information about the gene on which the disorder is located. HOW THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM WORKS NEURONS  Four major parts: o Cell body o Dendrites o Axons o Terminal buttons  Nerve impulse o Moves down the axon NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND REUPTAKE  Neurotransmitters o Chemical messengers that are released from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse.  Inhibitory or excitatory o Postsynaptic Neuron  Contains receptor sites that receive the neurotransmitter o Reuptake  Reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter by the presynaptic neuron BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS  EXAMPLES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS IMPLICATED IN MENTAL DISORDERS o SEROTONIN, DOPAMINE  PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS o MODIFY ACTIVITY OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS  ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT) o Used primarily for depression, when drugs and other therapies have failed  Psychosurgery (or neurosurgery): o Roots in trephination; 1930s = first lobotomy o More precise today than in the past o Used only in extreme cases  Reductionism o Psychological function reduced to simplest components o View criticized as to simplistic PSYCHOANALYTIC PARADIGM  FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC PARADIGM o Structures of mind  Id  Primary process thinking o Fantasizes satisfaction of desires  Operates at the unconscious level  Pleasure principle  “Children”  Ego  Secondary Process Thinking o Planning, decision-making  Operates primarily at the conscious level  Reality Principle o Navigates desires of ID and Demands of reality o “Controlling Impulses”  Superego  Contains values and ideals (Conscience)  Introjection o Child incorporates the values, rules of parents STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT  ORAL o Mouth, lips, gums, & tongue o Primary satisfaction from sucking & chewing  ANAL o Pleasure derived from feces elimination & retention  PHALLIC o Pleasure derived from sexual organs o Sexual desire for opposite sex parent. o Afraid of same sex parent, child represses desire for the opposite sex parent and identifies with the same sex parent.  Oedipus complex  Electra complex  Latency Period  Fixation o Too little or too much gratification leads to fixation o When under stress, individual regresses to that stage DEFENSE MECHANISIMS 1. Repression – Keeping unacceptable impulses or wishes form conscious awareness 2. Denial – Keeping negative events from conscious awareness 3. Projection – Attributing someone else one’s own thoughts or feelings 4. Displacement – Decting feelings from their original text PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT  Goal of psychoanalytic therapy: o Insight  Bring repressed feelings of anxiety into awareness  Techniques o Free association  Express whatever thoughts come to mind without censorship o Resistance  Reluctance to free associate provides clue as to source of the conflict o Dream analysis  Unconscious conflicts are revealed in a disguised form in dreams o Transference  Patients feelings towards important people are transferred onto the psychoanalyst.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.