Abnormal Psych Week 1
Abnormal Psych Week 1 Psychology 331
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cody Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 331 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Benjamin Rodriguez in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
Reviews for Abnormal Psych Week 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/28/16
THE BIOLOGICAL – GENETIC PARADIGM January 26, 2016 Paradigm o Set of basic assumptions governing: 1. How to conceptualize and study a subject 2. Gather and interpret relevant information Until recently, scientists of a given place and time had a single model of abnormality influenced by culture/beliefs (Demonology, 4 humors etc.) o Today several models are used – conflicting o Can a single model explain al aspects of abnormality? BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM “Medical Model” or Disease Model” Mental disordres caused by biological factors. o E.g., neurotransmitters, brain malfunction Biological processes include: o Heredity o Imbalances of brain chemistry o Disordered development of brain structures o Other biological systems E.g., neuroendocrine system, HPA Axis BEHAVIOR GENETICS STUDIES HOW HEREDITY PLAYS A ROLE IN CHARACERISTICS AND BEHAVIOR o Genotype-The genetic material you inherit o Phenotype- The observable characteristics and behaviors you exhibit. o Diathesis-stress model o Phenotype results from an interaction between genotype and environment E.g., Poor nutrition may inhibit growth o Most mental disorders are not directly inherited. Underlying genetic vulnerability plus environmental stressor may trigger development of disorder FOUR METHODS OF UNCOVERING GENETIC INFLUENCES 1. Family Method The closer the blood relationship you have with someone, the more genetic material you have in common o First-degree relatives Parents/siblings – 50% shared genetic material o Second-degree relatives Aunts/Uncles/Grandparents – 25% shared genetic material If a mental disorder is genetically influenced, relatives who are genetically close to proband or index case, are more likely than those who are genetically distant, to also have the disorder. 2. Twin studies Two types of twins o Monozygotic (MZ) – Identical o Dizygotic (DZ) – Fraternal If MZ twin pairs are more concordant for disorder than DZ twin pairs, the disorder has a heritable component o E.g., schizophrenia Equal environment assumption o Environmental factors may influence the development of a disorder are equal for both types of twin pairs. 3. Adoptees Method Look at ways that children who are adopted very early in life are similar to their biological parents. When children raised by adoptive parents are more like biological parents = evidence of genetic predisposition 4. Linkage Analysis Goal is to uncover the gene involved in the disorder Blood samples are taken from families in which several members have a particular disorder. Genetic marker o A characteristic whose genetics are well understood. When disorder co-occurs with genetic marker, we have information about the gene on which the disorder is located. HOW THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM WORKS NEURONS Four major parts: o Cell body o Dendrites o Axons o Terminal buttons Nerve impulse o Moves down the axon NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND REUPTAKE Neurotransmitters o Chemical messengers that are released from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse. Inhibitory or excitatory o Postsynaptic Neuron Contains receptor sites that receive the neurotransmitter o Reuptake Reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter by the presynaptic neuron BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS EXAMPLES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS IMPLICATED IN MENTAL DISORDERS o SEROTONIN, DOPAMINE PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS o MODIFY ACTIVITY OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT) o Used primarily for depression, when drugs and other therapies have failed Psychosurgery (or neurosurgery): o Roots in trephination; 1930s = first lobotomy o More precise today than in the past o Used only in extreme cases Reductionism o Psychological function reduced to simplest components o View criticized as to simplistic PSYCHOANALYTIC PARADIGM FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC PARADIGM o Structures of mind Id Primary process thinking o Fantasizes satisfaction of desires Operates at the unconscious level Pleasure principle “Children” Ego Secondary Process Thinking o Planning, decision-making Operates primarily at the conscious level Reality Principle o Navigates desires of ID and Demands of reality o “Controlling Impulses” Superego Contains values and ideals (Conscience) Introjection o Child incorporates the values, rules of parents STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT ORAL o Mouth, lips, gums, & tongue o Primary satisfaction from sucking & chewing ANAL o Pleasure derived from feces elimination & retention PHALLIC o Pleasure derived from sexual organs o Sexual desire for opposite sex parent. o Afraid of same sex parent, child represses desire for the opposite sex parent and identifies with the same sex parent. Oedipus complex Electra complex Latency Period Fixation o Too little or too much gratification leads to fixation o When under stress, individual regresses to that stage DEFENSE MECHANISIMS 1. Repression – Keeping unacceptable impulses or wishes form conscious awareness 2. Denial – Keeping negative events from conscious awareness 3. Projection – Attributing someone else one’s own thoughts or feelings 4. Displacement – Decting feelings from their original text PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT Goal of psychoanalytic therapy: o Insight Bring repressed feelings of anxiety into awareness Techniques o Free association Express whatever thoughts come to mind without censorship o Resistance Reluctance to free associate provides clue as to source of the conflict o Dream analysis Unconscious conflicts are revealed in a disguised form in dreams o Transference Patients feelings towards important people are transferred onto the psychoanalyst.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'