Abnormal Psych week 2
Abnormal Psych week 2 Psychology 331
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cody Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 331 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Benjamin Rodriguez in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Abnormal Psychology January 28, 2016 HUMANISTIC AND EXISTENTIAL PARADIGMS HUMANISTIC PARADIGMS o Carl Rodger’s Client-Centered Therapy Each person sees the world from a unique perspective. We have the capacity for self awareness Humans are basically good Humans are self-directed Our goal is self-actualization Become more aware of themselves. More self aware to know why they are doing these things. Techniques of Client-Centered Therapy Unconditonal Positive Regard o The therapist accepts the patient for who he or she is Dones not impose conditions of worth Empathy o Primary Empathy By restating what the client says, therapist conveys that he/she understands client’s thoughts and feelings. o Advanced Empathy Therapists statements go beyond restatement to interpretation Meaning behind what the client says EXISTENTIAL THERAPY Empasizes personal grouth and freedom. As human beings we are free to make choices o However, the freedom to choose causes anxiety Existential therapy encourages clients to confront their anxieties and to make important decisions GESTALT THERAPY o Fritz Perls Psychological problems arise from frustration and denial of our basic nature Therapy Techniques o I-language o Empty chair o Projection of feelings o Attending to non-verbal cues o The use of metaphors BEHAVIORAL (LEARNING) Paradigm Abnormal behavior is learned as are normal behaviors o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning o Modeling Behaviorism focuses on observable behavior Operant Conditoning Positive Reinforcement o Behaviors followed by pleasant stimuli are strengthen Negative Reinforcement o Behaviors that terminate a negative stimulus are strengthened Behavior can be shaped using method of successive approximations o Reward a series of responses that approximate the final response. Reinforcement/ Punishment Positive Reinforcement- You come to class I give you a cookie Negative Reinforcement- You answer the phone and the ringing goes away Positive Punishment- Your kid is being is a brat and you smack him Negative Punishment-Take something that you like away in order to increase a behavior “Instead of smacking your kid, you put them in timeout” BEHAVIOR THERAPY Behavior Therapy o Uses learning methods to change abnormal behavior, thoughts, and feelings Counterconditioning: Learning a new response o Systematic desensitization Relaxation is paired with a stimulus that formerly induced anxiety Behavior Therapy Counterconditioning: Learning a new response o Aversive conditioning An unpleasant event is paired with a stimulus to reduce its attractiveness COGNITIVE PARADIGM Beck’s Cognitiive therapy for Depression o Drepressed mood caused by cognitive distortions “Nothing good ever happens to me” Ellis’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy o Emotional upset is due to irrational beliefs “I must be loved by everyone” Diathesis-Stress Model Diathesis o Underlying predisposition or vulnerability to develop the disorder Could be a biological (Genetics, maternal viral infection, etc.) Psychological (Cognitive set, physical abuse, cultural factors, etc.) o Stress Unpleasant environmental stimulus Tramatic event, day to day hassels Diathesis increases risk for developing the disorder, but stress may actually trigger the disorder’s onset My Model for Approaching the Class Cognition “Thinking” Behavior “Acting” Affect “Feeling” Affect “Feeling” Cognition “Thinking” Behavior “Acting” Clinical Assessment: How and Why Does the Client Behave Abnormally? Assessment is collecting relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion o Clinical assessment used to determine How and why a person is behaving abnormally How that person may be helped To evaluate treatment progress The specific tools depend on the clinician’s theoretical orientation Clinical assessment tools fall in three categories: o Clinical interviews o Tests o Observations CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSESSMENT TOOLS To be useful, assessment tools must be standardized and have clear reliability and validity o Common steps to be followed whenever it is administered Standardized administration, scoring, and interpretation Reliability Reliability- Consistency of measurement o Types of relaiblity: Interrater reliability- the degree of agreement between observers Test-retest reliability – The extent to which scores are similar when taking the same test twice Internal consistency – Whether items on a test are related. Validity Validity – the extent to which a measure fulfills its intended purpose o Some tests assess an inferred dimension or CONSTRUCT e.g. “Anxiety” o Validity is constrained by reliability of the instrument *UNRELIABLE MEASURES WON’T HAVE GOOD VALIDITY* Consistency Forms of Validity Content validity – whether a measure adequately sambles the domain of interest Criterion validity – whether a measure is associated in an expected way with another measure (the critieria) Construct validity – whether a measure of a construct relates to other measures of that construct Face validity – a tool appears to measure what it is supposed to measure; does not necessarily indicate true validty Predictive validity – a tool accurately predicts future characteristcs of behavior. Psychological Assessment Goal of psychological assessment is to determine cognitive, emotional, personality, and behavior factors in psychopathology Techniques of assessment include: o Clinical interviews o Psychological tests o Behavioral assessment procedures o Cognitive assessment procedures
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