Baroque Architecture Lecture 1 Notes
Baroque Architecture Lecture 1 Notes ARCH 218-02
Popular in History of World Architecture: Middle Ages-18th Century
Popular in Architecture
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bobbi Ellias on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 218-02 at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo taught by Yip, Christopher L. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see History of World Architecture: Middle Ages-18th Century in Architecture at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Baroque: (Roman Baroque) I. Architectural Principles of Renaissance 1. classicism (rediscovery of vitruvius) 2. humanism 3. scientiﬁc learning 4. proportion and order A. Villa Giulia, Rome: A.entryway- play with classical elements. arch is made w brick used as decoration B. Reformation: 1. Reformers such as martin Luther react against Church abuses, venality, and oppressiveness. Luther nails his 95 theses to the door of castle church in Wittenberg in 1517. Reformation ideas spread though Europe amongst all social classes. C. Counter Reformation: 1. The religious, intellectual, and political threat of the Protestant Reformation prompts the Counter Reformation (aka Catholic Reformation); an attempt to record church and reestablish traditions. Problems w church: 1. Church gave away land to his supporters 2. Indulgences- buy pardon for sins 3. Buy your way in church (if you want son to be in it, you can buy his presence in church) 2. Jesuit Order- most active order in foreign missions (including Americas) 3. Council of Trent- deﬁne doctrines of church and addresses issues within church D. Gesu, Rome. Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola 1. scrolls on side of buildings (looks like bookend instead of church decoration) a. these are present throughout different parts of world but identiﬁes with jesuit order (shows that jesuit churches were widely spread) b. mother church of the Jesuit order and became a model for Jesuit churches around the world. First major project following the “sack of Rome” c. classical elements- at ﬁrst glance, has basic classical elements of Romanesque d. play on classical: columns are doubles, convex style- door/center comes out towards us (viewers). more sculptural and dynamic than early, simple renaissance 2. interior: a. not baroque- interior is simple and spacious to accommodate a lot of people b. enter broad nave c. big dome with short arch d. broad walkways e. main focus: recenter focus of people on the rituals of the church (eliminate distractions) E. Rebuilding of St. Peter’s basilica: combination of different architect’s work 1. Bramante’s great plan remains focus of building plan 2. dome in center is about same size as great Brunaleschi dome 3. Michelangelo’s plan (image to left)- keeps main idea of bramante’s plan but changes a few things. making more spaces and a rounder overall church. a. structure gets bigger b. less separate shapes, becomes more one shape c. monumental church= focus on great dome d. adds a “front” entryway to church e. columns scale 2 stories f. dome= size of Brunaleschi’s dome in Florence (goes to ﬂorence and copies it) i. difference: round, not octangular like Florence dome II. uses tension chains to negate lateral thrust (like Bruncleschi) g. add a nave (Carlo Maderno) to make it more longitudinal to accommodate more people (meets Counter- Reformation desires) II. Baroque Architecture: A. Renaissance: 1. builds on Renaissance architecture. uses same set of classical elements (columns, arches, and pediments) 2. Difference: emphasize movement, plasticity, complex geometry, rather than perfect, balanced geometry B.Strada Pia- Michelangelo (left): C.. city streets: not grid-like (renaissance) but more geometric and widens city D. Gianlorenzo Bernini: Italian sculptor (mainly sculptor, he was also an architect) 1. Apollo and Daphne (realism) 2. Bernini’s David (movement) 3. Baldacchino, St. Peter’s- Bernini (left!) sculpture. dramatic, colorful, dynamic use of classical elements. a. plans oval and trapezoid for structure of plaza in front of church (adds baroque geometry and creativity to entryway- Piazza of St. Peter’s- right image) with fountains. 4. Cornaro Chapel. Bernini. (named after patron family) a. light, sculpture, perspective, color. emotional content (right) -scupltures around in building- one on right is “on stage” inside the building and other sculptures of the family surround the building, “watching” the statues on stage 5. Andrea al Quirinale. Bernini (left) a. classical vocabulary but geometry and plasticity of Baroque. b. note “wings” of church on outside c. completely circular church layout- oval E. Francesco Borromini- Italy. works for bernini 1. Carolo alle Quatro Fonte- Borromini (right) a. warped building style. bends and curves. ripples b. big medallion (looks like rose window style) c. bell tower at an angle d. Bernini- play with geometry e. non-traditional layout (curves and not circular or rectangular)- left image above 2. S. Ivo della Sapienza. Borromini a. inspired by great Mosque of Samarra and Temple of Venus- b. dome are not concentric circles but arcs of same radius drawn from different centers c. Geometry of S. Ivo (left) is complex compared to Romanesque traditional square and circles
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