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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 355 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Kristy Dean in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Psychology & Culture in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Psychology & Culture Class #6 Why are cultures changing? o Increased interconnection Ex) import/export food can get KFC while at the pyramids in Egypt o Changing societal policies within a culture Ex) one-child policy in China Parents are only allowed to have one child help slow population growth o Exceptions: family living in rural areas (farm) allowed 2 kids; ethnic minorities; pregnant with twins or multiples o ~2013 started to relax policy o ~2015 limit to 2 kids Consequences: o Not enough younger people to take care of older generation 4-2-1: 4 grandparents, 2 parents, 1 child Increased burden on kid to take care of elders o Kids not as socially capable because they only socialize at school compared to socializing with siblings at home o Possibility of only kid being spoiled o Increased anxiety for kid because of parents’ expectations o Societal problems due to unequal sex ratio (more men than women) Why do cultures stay the same? o The power of early conditions The ratchet effect: modifying & improving upon earlier cultural information Ex) evolution of the telephone know what it is even if it looks very different Cultures stay the same o Effect of early conditions Early settling conditions laid the foundation for a more “individualistic” culture o Study: “The Frontier Spirit” (Kitayama, Ishii, Imada, Takemura, & Ramaswany, 2006) Question: is voluntary settlement a cause of individualism? In both America & Japan? **settlement of Hokkaido (island of Japan) by Samurai Participants from Hokkaido U., Kyoto U., & U. of M. Emotions differently predict happiness Personal success emotions (pride, self-esteem); predict in U.S. Social harmony emotions (friendship feelings, respect, love); predict in Japan Asked to write about a recent emotional episode Emotions coded as involving personal or social aspects Measured happiness (self-report) Scale 1-7 Results: U.S. more personal aspects Japan (Kyoto) more social aspects Hokkaido inbetween; both social & personal aspects Is X a Cultural Universal? o The hierarchical framework approach (aka, the toolbox analogy) Does the tool (psychological phenomenon) exist across cultures? Is the tool used similarly? Is the tool used to the same degree? **figure 1.5 in book** First Steps o What is your question or hypothesis? Question universality? Study cultures that are maximally different Culture specific topic? Study one culture in detail