Anthropology 101: Week 1 Notes
Anthropology 101: Week 1 Notes Anthropology 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Gonzales on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 101 at Washington State University taught by Cara Monroe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Introduction to General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Anthropology 101: Week 1 Notes Evolvement of Human Characteristics (dates and characteristics) 1. Bipedalism (6-7 million years ago) a. Definition: the ability to walk on two legs b. Bipedalism occurred because of premature births that were starting to occur in mammals, causing pelvis restructuring, and it became necessary for animals to walk on two legs. 2. Stone tools (~2.5 million years ago) a. These tools were necessary for getting into harder nooks and crannies or cracking open harder shells or nuts that the earliest Homo Sapiens were starting to find necessary in their diets. 3. Symbolic culture (~400,000 years ago) a. Symbolic culture is any form of drawing or artistic symbol that is on display for a person walking by to see. i. Ex: Tattoos, Cave drawings, Jewelry, etc. 4. Food production (12,000 ago – present day) a. When food production became of major importance, domestication started to occur b. GMO’s are a huge controversy today because of whether or not they are harmful to humans in large quantities Definition: Anthropology is the study of humans across space and time It is holistic and comparative Definition: Ethnocentrism is the belief that the culture you belong to is the best Generally viewed with a bad connotation People who have this belief about their culture are generally less receptive to opening up to other cultures or beliefs, and tend to resist change Definition: Cultural Relativism is the belief that all cultures are different but equal Good connotation The opposite of ethnocentrism, as people who believe this are more open-minded to change and more receptive to trying new things in respects to different cultures Four Fields of Anthropology 1. Cultural Anthropology – the study of human behavior, traditions, and society a. Objectives: i. Document diversity of human culture (as well as similarities) 2. Biocultural Anthropology – Humans are best understood as the product of both culture and biology a. Ex: Some humans/cultures are able to digest milk because they used to be herders, and lived off of the nutrients that milk provided. Other cultures never needed milk because they had no contact with animals who produced it, and in turn are lactose intolerant. 3. Cultural Anthropology/Ethnology: Study of thought and behavior a. Types of ethnologists: i. Ethnographers (study different societies based on the views of the people in that society) ii. Ethno-historian (study the history of certain societies) iii. Cross-Cultural Researcher (studies both the differences and similarities of various cultures globally) 4. Linguist Anthropology: The study of human speech and language including its origins as well as social and cultural contexts. a. Language and culture: i. Considers language as a key element of culture/identity, language and biology. b. Language and biology: i. Development of capacity for speech in cognition and anatomy c. Types of Linguistic Anthropologists: i. Historical linguistics (study the history of language and where it developed) ii. Descriptive/structural linguistics (study of how different languages came to be structurally and described to the people of the culture) iii. Sociolinguistics (the study of language in relation to different regions, social factors, and occupations) Ex: Someone might be extremely formal in India talking to a colleague, but in America, we are very informal. Archaeology Definition: The study of human societies – past and present Able to study archaeology through artifacts, which show us how past cultures lived, or different tools they used, or even what they might have looked like. Also studied through the use of ecofacts (environmental cues to what their culture might have been like), and environments Definition: Biological Anthropology is the study of human evolution and variation, both past and current
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