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Module 3 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Module 3 Notes SPED 7007

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes for week 3 of class. They cover the Vanderbilt article and Chapter 3 of our textbook.
Positive Behavior
Dr. Todd Haydon
Class Notes
Overview of a Functional Approach to Intervention
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Module  3  Notes   Written  by  Krista  Anstead   January  2016     Learning  Outcomes:   1.   Explain  How  to  Conduct  an  FBA   2.   Conduct  an  Assessment  from  a  Functional  Perspective   3.   Explain  the  Function  of  Behavior   4.   Articulate  the  Steps  of  a  Functional  Behavior  Assessment   o   Step  1:  Defining  Behavior                           o   Step  2:  Assess  Predictable  Patterns                           o   Step  3:  Developing  a  Hypothesis  About  the  Function  of  Behavior     Readings/References:   Scott,  T.,  &  Anderson,  C.  (2012).  Overview  of  a  functional  approach  to  intervention.  In     Managing  Classroom  Behavior  Using  Positive  Behavior  Supports.  Boston:  Pearson.   Vanderbilt,  A.  A.  (2005).  Designed  for  teachers:  How  to  implement  self-­‐monitoring  in  the     classroom.  Beyond  Behavior,  15(1),  21-­‐24.     Acronyms:   Functional  behavior  assessment  =  FBA     Chapter  3  Notes   Introduction   •   Behavior  is  functional  in  that  it  helps  individuals  meet  their  needs   •   Too  often,  we  focus  on  behavior  management  problems  and  looking  for  a  cause  inside   the  student     Why  do  students  engage  in  behavior?   •   Function  of  behavior:  reason  why  a  behavior  is  occurring/what  is  reinforcing  the   behavior   o   Does  not  imply  the  individual  consciously  decided  to  engage  in  behavior  (they   often  operate  habitually)   o   One  occurrence  followed  by  a  particular  consequence  is  not  sufficient  to  identify   function   o   Function  is  identified  if  a  certain  behavior  usually  is  evoked  by  specific  stimuli   and  followed  by  certain  consequences   o   Identifying  function  of  behavior  is  critical  for  developing  an  intervention  plan   •   Social  behavior  serves  two  functions   o   Provides  a  student  with  attention,  tangible  items,  activities,  and/or  sensory   stimuli  (positive  reinforcement)   o   Provides  a  means  for  escaping  or  avoiding  attention,  tangible  items,  activities,  or   sensory  stimulation  (negative  reinforcement)   •   Discriminative  stimuli   o   Makes  it  more  likely  that  a  behavior  will  occur  because  it  signals  that  certain   consequences  are  differentially  available     Functional  behavior  assessment   •   Definition:  “process  of  assessment  to  determine  how  the  environment  predicts  and   maintains  a  response,  that  is  why  the  behavior  is  occurring”   •   Purpose:  to  better  understand  the  behavior  in  order  to  develop  effective  intervention   •   Process  of  gathering  information  about  the  relation  between  the  environment  and  a   behavior  so  as  to  understand  what  events  make  the  behavior  more  likely  to  occur  and   also  what  event  serves  to  reinforce  the  behavior     Key  Steps  of  FBA   •   Defining  the  behavior   o   Behaviors  are  defined  by  their  dimensions  in  a  measurable  and  observable   manner   o   Entails  at  least  two  dimensions  that  include  topography  of  the  behavior  and   some  indication  of  the  amount  of  behavior   •   Assessing  predictable  patterns  (aka  routines  analysis)   o   Gather  information  to  develop  a  hypothesis  about  the  relation  between   antecedents,  the  problem  behavior,  and  the  consequences  that  maintain  it   o   Done  by  collecting  data  via  direct  observations,  interview,  questionnaires,  etc.   o   What  are  the  problematic  routines?  Make  a  schedule  of  the  student’s  routine   and  mark  when  the  problem  behavior  occurs   §   Helps  focus  attention  only  on  those  routines  that  are  problematic   §   We  can  ask  questions  or  conduct  observations  to  determine  why  problem   occurs  during  one  routine  and  not  others   §   The  same  behavior  can  be  evoked  by  different  antecedents  and   maintained  by  different  consequences  in  different  texts   •   Developing  a  hypothesis  about  the  behavior’s  function   o   Best  guess  about  what  events  seem  to  predict  the  problem  (antecedents)  and   what  events  maintain  the  problem  (reinforcing  function)   o   Allows  for  an  easy  display  of  the  relation  between  problem  behavior  and  events   in  the  environment   o   Help  determine  how  the  consequences  function  to  reinforce  the  problem   behavior   •   Verifying  the  hypothesis  in  some  manner  (discussed  in  chapter  8)     Conducting  an  FBA   •   FBA  can  be  used  in  a  simplified  and  realistic  manner  to  develop  effective  classroom   management  plans   •   What  appropriate  and  inappropriate  behaviors  are  observed?  (define  behavior)   •   What  types  of  actions  or  events  tend  to  precede  instances  of  appropriate  and   inappropriate  behavior?  (identify  antecedents)   •   What  types  of  actions  or  events  tend  to  follow  instances  of  appropriate  and   inappropriate  behavior?  (identify  consequences)   •   What  is  a  measurable  statement  of  the  relationship  between  behavior  and  the   environment?  (hypothesize  function)     ABC  Assessment   •   Antecedent-­‐Behavior-­‐Consequence:  looking  at  what  happens  before  and  after  the   behavior   •   All  antecedents  and  consequences  happen  in  the  environment;  they  are  not  something   the  person  does     Vanderbilt  Article  Notes   Self-­‐monitoring   •   Student-­‐centered  strategy  aimed  at  decreasing  the  problem  behavior   •   Used  to  increase  on-­‐task  behavior  of  students  by  encouraging  them  to  monitor  their   own  behavior   •   Benefits   o   Effective  tool  for  changing  behavior   o   Promotes  generalization  of  the  appropriate  behavior  to  other  environments   o   Frees  teacher  to  attend  to  other  students  and  focus  on  content   o   Increases  student  independence  by  making  students  responsible  for  their  own   behavior   o   Inexpensive   o   Relatively  easy  to  teach  and  implement   o   Can  be  used  successfully  by  students  with  different  ability  levels     10  key  steps  for  implementing  self-­‐monitoring   1.   Identify  the  behavior   a.   Important  to  only  address  one  problem  at  a  time  to  avoid  overwhelming  the   student   2.   Define  the  target  and  develop  a  replacement  behavior   a.   Definition  of  target  behavior  must  be  written  in  child-­‐friendly  language   3.   Collect  baseline  data   a.   Determine  extent  to  which  behavior  is  causing  problems   b.   Can  use  frequency  recording  (tally  marks  of  exhibited  behavior)   c.   Baseline  data  should  be  collected  on  5  separate  occasions  over  5  school  days   4.   Schedule  a  conference  with  the  student   a.   Purpose  is  to  convince  student  they  would  benefit  from  adhering  to  plan   b.   Start  by  emphasizing  student’s  strengths  and  when  student  carries  out  behavior   without  prompting   c.   Student  needs  to  know  what  they  are  doing  correctly  to  increase  occurrence  of   behavior   d.   Clearly  define  incorrect  behavior  and  outline  correct  procedure   5.   Select  self-­‐monitoring  procedures   a.   Determine  how  frequently  student  will  record  behavior   b.   Decide  on  a  prompt  to  signal  the  student  to  record  behavior  (visual,  audio,   physical,  or  verbal)   6.   Teach  the  student  to  use  self-­‐monitoring  procedures   a.   Practice  self-­‐monitoring  step-­‐by-­‐step   7.   Have  the  student  implement  the  self-­‐monitoring   a.   Teacher  should  provide  frequent,  positive  reinforcement,  feedback,  and   assistance  to  encourage  student  to  continue  using  plan   8.   Use  specific  verbal  praise   a.   This  means  addressing  the  student  by  name,  stating  the  correct  behavior  being   performed,  and  providing  positive  feedback   9.   Monitor  student  progress   a.   Monitor  student’s  behavior  to  determine  effectiveness  of  plan   b.   Teacher  continue  to  collect  data  and  observe  student   10.  Maintenance  and  follow-­‐up   a.   Plan  can  be  gradually  phased  out  until  student  is  maintaining  behavior   independently   b.   Teacher  continue  to  give  praise  as  a  reinforce   c.   Teacher  conducts  intermittent  observations     FAQ  about  self-­‐monitoring   •   Self-­‐monitoring  is  best  for  students  who  can  do  their  assignments  but  may  have   problems  with  attention   •   Minimize  the  correcting  of  self-­‐monitoring  errors  so  as  not  to  discourage  student  and   cause  them  to  regress     Db  Post   Directions:  For  this  post,  write  2-­‐3  sentences  about  how  extinction  works  in  your  daily  life.      


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