Module 3 Notes
Module 3 Notes SPED 7007
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Module 3 Notes Written by Krista Anstead January 2016 Learning Outcomes: 1. Explain How to Conduct an FBA 2. Conduct an Assessment from a Functional Perspective 3. Explain the Function of Behavior 4. Articulate the Steps of a Functional Behavior Assessment o Step 1: Defining Behavior o Step 2: Assess Predictable Patterns o Step 3: Developing a Hypothesis About the Function of Behavior Readings/References: Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). Overview of a functional approach to intervention. In Managing Classroom Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports. Boston: Pearson. Vanderbilt, A. A. (2005). Designed for teachers: How to implement self-‐monitoring in the classroom. Beyond Behavior, 15(1), 21-‐24. Acronyms: Functional behavior assessment = FBA Chapter 3 Notes Introduction • Behavior is functional in that it helps individuals meet their needs • Too often, we focus on behavior management problems and looking for a cause inside the student Why do students engage in behavior? • Function of behavior: reason why a behavior is occurring/what is reinforcing the behavior o Does not imply the individual consciously decided to engage in behavior (they often operate habitually) o One occurrence followed by a particular consequence is not sufficient to identify function o Function is identified if a certain behavior usually is evoked by specific stimuli and followed by certain consequences o Identifying function of behavior is critical for developing an intervention plan • Social behavior serves two functions o Provides a student with attention, tangible items, activities, and/or sensory stimuli (positive reinforcement) o Provides a means for escaping or avoiding attention, tangible items, activities, or sensory stimulation (negative reinforcement) • Discriminative stimuli o Makes it more likely that a behavior will occur because it signals that certain consequences are differentially available Functional behavior assessment • Definition: “process of assessment to determine how the environment predicts and maintains a response, that is why the behavior is occurring” • Purpose: to better understand the behavior in order to develop effective intervention • Process of gathering information about the relation between the environment and a behavior so as to understand what events make the behavior more likely to occur and also what event serves to reinforce the behavior Key Steps of FBA • Defining the behavior o Behaviors are defined by their dimensions in a measurable and observable manner o Entails at least two dimensions that include topography of the behavior and some indication of the amount of behavior • Assessing predictable patterns (aka routines analysis) o Gather information to develop a hypothesis about the relation between antecedents, the problem behavior, and the consequences that maintain it o Done by collecting data via direct observations, interview, questionnaires, etc. o What are the problematic routines? Make a schedule of the student’s routine and mark when the problem behavior occurs § Helps focus attention only on those routines that are problematic § We can ask questions or conduct observations to determine why problem occurs during one routine and not others § The same behavior can be evoked by different antecedents and maintained by different consequences in different texts • Developing a hypothesis about the behavior’s function o Best guess about what events seem to predict the problem (antecedents) and what events maintain the problem (reinforcing function) o Allows for an easy display of the relation between problem behavior and events in the environment o Help determine how the consequences function to reinforce the problem behavior • Verifying the hypothesis in some manner (discussed in chapter 8) Conducting an FBA • FBA can be used in a simplified and realistic manner to develop effective classroom management plans • What appropriate and inappropriate behaviors are observed? (define behavior) • What types of actions or events tend to precede instances of appropriate and inappropriate behavior? (identify antecedents) • What types of actions or events tend to follow instances of appropriate and inappropriate behavior? (identify consequences) • What is a measurable statement of the relationship between behavior and the environment? (hypothesize function) ABC Assessment • Antecedent-‐Behavior-‐Consequence: looking at what happens before and after the behavior • All antecedents and consequences happen in the environment; they are not something the person does Vanderbilt Article Notes Self-‐monitoring • Student-‐centered strategy aimed at decreasing the problem behavior • Used to increase on-‐task behavior of students by encouraging them to monitor their own behavior • Benefits o Effective tool for changing behavior o Promotes generalization of the appropriate behavior to other environments o Frees teacher to attend to other students and focus on content o Increases student independence by making students responsible for their own behavior o Inexpensive o Relatively easy to teach and implement o Can be used successfully by students with different ability levels 10 key steps for implementing self-‐monitoring 1. Identify the behavior a. Important to only address one problem at a time to avoid overwhelming the student 2. Define the target and develop a replacement behavior a. Definition of target behavior must be written in child-‐friendly language 3. Collect baseline data a. Determine extent to which behavior is causing problems b. Can use frequency recording (tally marks of exhibited behavior) c. Baseline data should be collected on 5 separate occasions over 5 school days 4. Schedule a conference with the student a. Purpose is to convince student they would benefit from adhering to plan b. Start by emphasizing student’s strengths and when student carries out behavior without prompting c. Student needs to know what they are doing correctly to increase occurrence of behavior d. Clearly define incorrect behavior and outline correct procedure 5. Select self-‐monitoring procedures a. Determine how frequently student will record behavior b. Decide on a prompt to signal the student to record behavior (visual, audio, physical, or verbal) 6. Teach the student to use self-‐monitoring procedures a. Practice self-‐monitoring step-‐by-‐step 7. Have the student implement the self-‐monitoring a. Teacher should provide frequent, positive reinforcement, feedback, and assistance to encourage student to continue using plan 8. Use specific verbal praise a. This means addressing the student by name, stating the correct behavior being performed, and providing positive feedback 9. Monitor student progress a. Monitor student’s behavior to determine effectiveness of plan b. Teacher continue to collect data and observe student 10. Maintenance and follow-‐up a. Plan can be gradually phased out until student is maintaining behavior independently b. Teacher continue to give praise as a reinforce c. Teacher conducts intermittent observations FAQ about self-‐monitoring • Self-‐monitoring is best for students who can do their assignments but may have problems with attention • Minimize the correcting of self-‐monitoring errors so as not to discourage student and cause them to regress Db Post Directions: For this post, write 2-‐3 sentences about how extinction works in your daily life.
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