Developmetal Psych: Prejudice (Week 4) Notes
Developmetal Psych: Prejudice (Week 4) Notes PSY 256-70
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bobbi Ellias on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 256-70 at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Linda Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology 256 in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
* means that teacher identiﬁed as potential test question I. Are Children Prejudice? A. Child’s sense of self 1. existential self (2 months of age)- has sense of existence 2. categorical self (20 months)- self awareness (1) starts recognizing “Mine!” vs “Yours” (2) example from video: can take paint off nose after looking in mirror a. self concept (4-8 years of age): focus on external qualities (brown eyes, blonde hair) b. self concept (11+): focus on internal qualities (trustworthiness, social comparisons) B. Race Preference 1. class example: a. test: look at stream of different race photos b.3 month old infants spend more time looking at faces from own ethnic group but infants spend equal time looking at each picture c. result= discrimination forms at young age (once child has sense of self) 2. other race effect: recognition errors are more likely when a target face is from an unfamiliar racial group rather than own race group a. if you are Asian, it is harder to distinguish types of Europeans) b. this is present amongst 9-month old caucasian infants C. Development of Prejudice 1. ethnic attitudes acquired between 3-5 years 2. white children (about age 4) show in-group favoritism a. in-group favoritism- prefer own type group over others 3. ethnic minorities are more likely to show white bias a. white bias- attribute positive attributes to white individuals II. Gender Role Development: A. deﬁnition: process by which we acquire behaviors, attitudes, interests, emotional reactions that are culturally deﬁned as appropriate for our own sex *B. Where is predicted that behavioral differences begin? With the level of testosterone in the womb C. Differential Gender Socialization: 3 Theories 1. Biological: a. hormones/brain structure differs between boys/girls b. CAH levels- disorder caused by girls with more testosterone. Causes huge differences in style of play: resemble more aggressive style of boyish play 2. Psychoanalytic theory: a. Oedipus and Electra Complex i. child (ex: girl) wants to marry dad but cannot marry dad, so decides to be like mom in order to marry someone like dad b. identify with same sex parent 3. Social Cognitive Theory: a. imitation, reinforcements matter b. socially referred to as “boy” or “girl” since birth c. cognitively come to identify as “boy” or “girl” according to socialization *D. Stages of Gender Identity 1. Gender identity (2 years) a. can answer the question of “Are you a boy or a girl?” 2. Gender Stability (4 years) a. Can answer: Were you a girl or boy when you were born? * means that teacher identiﬁed as potential test question b. have conceptual idea that gender is stable and unchanging 3. Gender constancy: a. Despite appearance, gender stays the same Deﬁnitions to know: 1. gender role stereotypes: People’s beliefs about the differences between males and females 2. Gender differences- actual (“research says”) differences between boys/girls Class examples to distinguish “Stereotypes” from “Gender Differences” 1. Girls are more social than boys. -Stereotype 2. Girls have lower self esteem than boys. (Depends! because at childhood, there is no difference so this would be a stereotype. But as they enter into adolescence, this is a gender difference because girls do tend to have a lower self esteem than boys do.) 3. Boys are more aggressive than girls. (Depends! because at ages 2/3 boys tend to play “rougher” than girls do, making this a gender difference. But as a whole, across all ages, this is overall a stereotype.) 4. Boys are better at Math. Stereotype.
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