CHM 1020- Week 3, Chp 3
CHM 1020- Week 3, Chp 3 CHM 1020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Belson on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 1020 at Wayne State University taught by Maryfrances Barber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Survey of General Chemistry in Chemistry at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 3 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 2:14 PM Lecture on 1/26/2016 Started with lots of conversions. SUPER IMPORTANT INFORMATION: Make sure when converting in metrics, the "1" in the equivalence statements goes with the unit with the PREFIX 3.1 Internal Structure of an Atom Subatomic particle: a very small particle that is a building block for atoms A. 3 types of subatomic particles a. Electron i. Subatomic particle with a negative electrical charge b. Proton i. Subatomic particle with a positive electrical charge c. Neutron i. Subatomic particle with no charge Nucleus: small, dense, and positively charged center of an atom. Contains protons and neutrons. Electron Cloud: the volume occupied by the electrons in the extranuclear region Nucleon: any subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Both protons and neutrons are nucleons, and the nucleus is a collection of nucleons. Number of protons = number of electrons 3.2 Atomic Number and Mass Number Atomic Number: number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Atomic number = number of protons = number of electrons = Z Mass Number: the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atom. Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons = A Statements: 1. Number of protons = atomic number = Z 2. Number of electrons = atomic number = Z 3. Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons = A 4. Number of neutrons = mass number - atomic number = A - Z Complete Chemical Symbol Notation AZChemical Symbol A=mass number Z=atomic number 3.3 Isotopes and Atomic Masses Isotopes: atoms of an element that have the same number of protons and the same number of electrons but different numbers of neutrons. Isotopes have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers. Atomic weight: the calculated average mass for the isotopes of an element, expressed on a scale where 126 is the reference point. 3.4 Periodic Law and the Periodic Table Periodic Law: that when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, elements with similar chemical properties occur at periodic (regularly recurring) intervals. properties occur at periodic (regularly recurring) intervals. Periodic table: a tabular arrangement of the elements in order or increasing atomic number such that elements having similar chemical properties are positioned in vertical columns. Periods- horizontal rows of elements… 1, 2, 3… Groups: vertical column of elements in the periodic table… groups of roman numerals and a or b Alkali Metals (IA) +1 Lose 1 e Alkaline Earth Metals (IIA) +2 Lose 2 e *Pnictogens (VA) -3 Gain 3 e *Chalcogens (VIA) -2 Gain 2 e Halogens (VIIA) -1 Gain 1 e Noble Gases (VIIIA) 0 3.5 Metals and Nonmetals Metal: an element that has the characteristic properties of luster, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, malleability. Nonmetal: an element characterized by the absence of the properties of luster thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and malleability. Hg and Br are liquids at room temp. N, O, F, Cl, and the noble gases are the gases of the periodic tables. Main group: s and p groups Transition metals: d group Inner transition metal: f group 3.6 Electron Arrangements Within Atoms Electron Shells (Energy levels)- a region of space about a nucleus that contains electrons that have approximately the same energy and that spend most of their time approximately the same distance from the nucleus. These correspond to periods. Electron subshell: a region of space within an electron shell that contains electrons that have the same energy. Each shell/level has the same number of sublevel 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f Subshell accommodations: S subshells = 2 electrons P subshells = 6 electrons D subshell = 10 electrons F subshell = 14 electrons Electron orbital: a region of space within an electron subshell where an electron with a specific energy is most likely to be found. 1, 3, 5, 7 3.7 Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams Three rules to assigning electrons to various shells, subshells, and orbitals. 1. Electron subshells are filled in the order of increasing energy 2. Electrons occupy the orbitals of a subshells such that each orbital acquires one electron before any orbital acquires a second electron. 3. No more than two electrons may exist in a given orbital- and then only if they have opposite spins. Electron configuration: a statement of how many electrons an atom has in each of its electron subshells. Electron configuration: a statement of how many electrons an atom has in each of its electron subshells. *Super scripts note the number of electrons in each subshell Orbital Diagram: a notation that shows how many electrons an atom has in each of its occupied electron orbitals. *these are the boxes with up and down arrows. ***When writing valence electron configurations, use the group of the periodic table as the number of electrons. For finding what row to start in for valence electrons, use the period. For example, N is in the 2nd period, and in group 5a. So 2s 2p 3 3.8 The Electronic Basis for the Periodic Law and the Periodic Table Distinguishing Electron: the last electron added to the electron configuration for an element when electron subshells are filled in order of increasing energy. 3.9 Classification of Elements Noble-gas element: an element located in the far right column of the periodic table. Representative Element: an element located in the s area or the first five columns of the p area of the periodic table. Transition element: an element located in the d area of the periodic table. Inner transition element: an element located in the f are of the periodic table.
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