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Introduction, CH. 1 and CH. 2 notes

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by: Marlee Porter

Introduction, CH. 1 and CH. 2 notes KINE 30634

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Kinesiology > KINE 30634 > Introduction CH 1 and CH 2 notes
Marlee Porter

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notes from the book
Exercise Physiology
Dr. Mitchell
Class Notes
Exercise Physiology, Kinesiology, ex. phys.
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marlee Porter on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KINE 30634 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Mitchell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Exercise Physiology in Kinesiology at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Introduction: I) Introduction a) Two basic components of exercise physiology i) The acute responses of the body to exercise in all its forms ii) The adaptations of those systems to repeated or chronic exercise; often called exercise training II) Focus of Exercise and Sport Physiology a) Anatomy: the study of an organisms structure b) Physiology” the study of body function; study how the body’s organ systems, tissues, cells, and the molecules within cells work and how their functions are integrated to regulate the body’s internal environment (homeostasis) c) Exercise Physiology: the study of how the body’s functions are altered when we are exposed to exercise, a challenge to homeostasis d) Environmental Physiology: subdsicipline of exercise physiology that has to do with how the environment impacts how one performs exercise e) Sport Physiology: applies the concepts of exercise physiology to enhance sport performance and optimal training of athletes III) Acute and Chronic Responses to Exercise a) Acute Exercise: individual bout of exercise, with acute response; concerned with the body’s immediate response tom and sometimes its recovery from, a single bout of exercise i) How the body responds to an individual bout of exercise Ex: running on a treadmill b) Chronic Adaptation (training effects): how the body responds over time to the stress of repeated bout of exercise i) When one performs regular exercise over a period of days and weeks the body adapts. (1)These adaptations improve both exercise capacity and efficiency IV)Research: The Foundation for Understanding a) Research Settings i) Can be in the lab or in the field (1)Lab tests are usually more accurate because they are more specialized and sophisticated equipment can be used and the conditions can be controlled b) Research Tools i) Ergometers: used to control the participants physical effort to provide a measurable exercise intensity (1)An exercise device that allows the intensity of exercise to be controlled and measured ii) Treadmills: the ergometers of choice for most researchers (1)Advantages: individuals normally adjust to the skill required for walking on a treadmill, most people can achieve their peak physiological values on a treadmill (2)Disadvantages: more expensive, bulky, require electrical power, and are not portable, cant accurately measure blood pressure iii) Cycle Ergometers: peddling’s with mechanical friction or electrical resistance (1)Exercise intensity on a cycle ergometer does not depend on the subjects body weight (a)This is important when one is investigating physiological responses to a standard rate of work (b)Weight loss does not have as great an effect on physiological response to a standardized power output (weight independent) (c)Due to leg muscle weakness. The subject may be prevented from attaining a true maximal intensity (i) Reach peak exercise intensity rather than maximal intensity 1. This limitation may be attributable to local leg fatigue, blood pooling in the legs, or the use of smaller muscle mass during cycling than during treadmill exercise iv) Other Ergometers (1)Other ergometers allow athletes to be tested in manners more closely approximate to their training and competition (2)When one is choosing an ergometer, the concept of specificity is particularly important with highly trained athletes (a)The more specific the ergometer is to the actual pattern of movement used by the athlete in his or her sport, the more meaningful will be the test results c) Research Designs i) Two basic types (1)Cross sectional research design: a cross section of the population of interest is tested at one specific tome and the differences between subgroups from that sample are compared (2)Longitudinal research design: the same research subjects are retested periodically, after initial testing to measure changes over time in variables of interest (a) Best suited to study changes in variables over time (i) Too many factors that may taunt results can influence cross sectional designs d) Research Controls i) Scientists must determine how to control for variation in the subjects used in the study ii) Must determine if it is important to control for the subjects sex, age, or body sixe iii) Control Group: acts as a comparison group to make certain that any changed observed in the running group are attributable solely to the training program and not to any other factors iv) Placebo Group: often used in experimental designs, receives a fake stimulus v) Crossover Design: each group undergoes both treatment and control trials at different time vi) Control data collection (1)Equipment must be calibrated so the researcher knows that the values are accurate and the procedures used to collect data are standardized vii) Want to know that all test results are reproducible (1)Scientists generally take several measurements, sometimes on different days and then average the results, before, during, and at the end of an intervention e) Confounding Factors in Exercise Research i) Many factors alter the body’s acute response to a bout of exercise (1)Ex: temp and humidity of lab, light and noise in the room. Timing, volume, content of last meal, sleep the night before, also physiological responses ii) Diurnal variations refers to the fluctuations that occur during a 24 hour day f) Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs i) Independent variable: horizontal or x axis; factors that are manipulated or controlled by the researcher ii) Dependent Variable: vertical or y-axis; those that change with, and depend on the independent variables. Chapter Two: Fuel for Exercise: Bioenergetics and Muscle Metabolism I) Introduction a) All energy originates from the sun as light energy i) Chemical reactions in plants (photosynthesis) convert light into stored chemical energy ii) Humans obtain energy either by eating plants or by eating animals that feed on plants (1)Nutrients from ingested foods are provided in the from of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (a)These three basic fuels, or energy substrate’s can ultimately be broken don to release the stored energy b) Bioenergetics: each cell contains chemical pathways that convert these substrates to energy that can then be used by that cell and other cells of the body c) Metabolism: all the chemical reactions in the body d) Because all energy eventually degrades of heat, the amount of energy released in a biological reaction can be calculated from the amount of heat produced i) Energy in biological systems is measured in calories: 1 calorie equals the amount of heat energy need to raise 1 g of water at 1 degree Celsius from 14. 5 to 15. 5 (1)In humans energy is expressed in kilocalories e) Some free energy in the cells is used for growth and repair throughout the body i) Helps build muscle mass during training and repair muscle damage after exercise or injury f) Energy is also needed for active transport of many substances such as sodium, potassium, and calcium ions, across cell membranes i) Active transport is critical to the survival of cells and the maintain of homeostasis ii) Myofibrils also use some of the energy released in our bodies to cause sliding of the actin and myosin filaments, resulting in muscle action and force generation II) Energy Substrates a) Energy is released when chemical bonds that hold elements together to form molecules are broken i) Composed primarily of carbon hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen ii) Energy in food molecular bonds is chemically released within our cells and then stored in the from of the high-energy compound ATP b) Different types of substrates i) At rest. The energy that the body needs is derived almost equally from the breakdown of carbohydrates and fats ii) Proteins serve important functions as enzymes that aid chemical reactions and as structural building blocks but provided little energy for metabolism iii) Short, intense muscular effort more carbohydrates are used will less reliance on fat iv) Long, mild intensity exercise used carbs and fat for energy production c) Carbohydrate i) Amount utilized duing exercise is related to both the carbohydrate availability and the muscles well developed system for carbohydrate metabolism (1)All carbs are converted to simple six carbon sugar glucose, a monosaccharide that is transported through the blood to all body tissues ii) In resting conditions, ingested carbs are stored in muscles and liver in the more complex form of glycogen (1)Glycogen is in the cytoplasm of muscle cells, until they use it to form ATP (a)Glycogen in the liver is converted back to glucose as needed and then transported by the blood to active tissues where it is metabolized iii) The only energy source utilized by brain tissue d) Fat i) Large portion of energy utilized during prolonged, less intense exercise ii) Fat is less readily available for cellular metabolism because it must first be reduced from its complex form (triglyceride) o its basic components glycerol and free fatty acids (1)Only FFA are used to form ATP iii) More energy is released from breaking down fat then carbs (1)The rate of energy release from fat is too slow to meet all of the energy demands of intense muscular activity iv) Phospholipids: non-energy producing (1)Key structural component of cell membranes because they create a protective sheath e) Protein i) Protein can be used as a minor energy source but it must first be converted into glucose (1)In case of severe energy depletion protein can be used to generate FFA for energy ii) Gluconeogenesis: the process by which protein or fat is converted into glucose iii) Lipogenesis: the process of converting protein into fatty acids iv) Supply’s 5-10% of energy needed to sustain prolonged exercise (1)Only amino acids in protein can be used for energy III) Controlling the Rate of Energy Production a) Rate of energy released from chemical compounds is determined by . . . i) The availability of the primary substrate (mass action effect) (1)Larger the availability increases the activity of that particular pathway (a)An abundance of one substrate can cause cells to rely more on that source than on alternatives ii) Enzyme activity: protein molecules that control the rate of free energy release (1)Speed up the breakdown (catabolism) of chemical compounds (2)They work by speeding up reactions by lowering the activation energy that is required to begin the reaction (3)Most end with the suffix –ase (4)Each step involved in production of energy is catalyzed by a specific enzyme (a)Increasing the amount of enzyme present or the activity of that enzyme results in an increased rate of product formation through that metabolic pathway (5)Many enzymes require cofactors to function (6)Rate Limiting Enzyme: the enzyme that is important in controlling rate and is located in the early steps of a pathway (a)The activity of a rate-limiting enzyme is determined by the accumulation of substances farther down the pathway that decrease enzyme activity through negative feedback IV)Storing Energy: High-Energy Phosphates a) ATP is composed of adenosine and three inorganic phosphate groups i) Adenine is a nitrogen containing base, and ribose is a five carbon sugar b) When an ATP molecule is combined with water and acted on by the enzyme ATP. The large phosphate group splits away, rapidly releasing a large amount of free energy, and reduces the ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and P c) Phosphorylation: a phosphate group is added to the relatively low energy compound ADP to generate ATP i) Requires a lot of energy (1)Some occur with the help of oxygen and others are oxygen independent V) The Basic Energy Systems a) Three metabolic processes i) The ATP-PCr System (1)In addition to having a small amount of ATP in the cell they also contain another high energy phosphate molecule that stores energy called phosphocreatine (a)Involves donation of P from PCr to ADP to from ATP (i) The PCr is not directly used for cellular work, instead it regenerates ATP to maintain a relatively constant supply under resting conditions (b)The release of energy from PCr is catalyzed by the enzyme creatine kinase which acts on the PCr to separate P from Cr (i) The energy released can then be used to add a P molecule to an ADP molecule, forming ATP 1. As energy is released from ATP by the splitting of a phosphate group, cells can prevent ATP depletion by breaking down PCr, providing energy and P to reform ATP to ADP (c)Creatine kinase is enhanced when concentrations of ADP or P increase, and is inhibited when ATP concentrations increase (d)When intense exercise is initiates, the small amount of available ATP in muscle cells is broken down for immediate energy, yielding ADP and P (i) The increased ADP concentration enhances Creatine kinase activity and PCr is catabolized to from additional ATP. 1. As exercise progresses and additional ATP is generated by the other two energy systems, the glycolytic and oxidative systems, Creatine kinase activity is inhibited (2)Considered a substrate level metabolism (a)Although it can occur in the presence of oxygen, the process does not require oxygen (3)During the first few seconds of intense muscular activity, ATP is maintained at a relatively constant level, but PCr declines steadily as it is used to replenish the depleted ATP (4)At exhaustion both ATP and PCr levels are low and are unable to provide energy for further muscle contraction and relaxation. (a)The capacity to maintain ATP levels with the energy from PCR is limited (5)The combination of ATP and PCr stores can sustain the muscles energy needs for only 3-15 seconds (a)Beyond that time, muscles must rely on other process for ATP formation ii) Glycolytic System: the liberation of energy through the breakdown of glucose (1)Glycolysis: the breakdown of glucose through a pathway that involved a sequence of glycotic enzymes (2)Blood glucose comes from the digestion of carbs and the breakdown of liver glycogen (a)Glycogenesis: glycogen is synthesized from glucose and is stored in the liver or muscle till needed (b)Glycogenolysis: the glycogen is broken down to glucose-1-phosphate, which enters the glycolysis pathway (3)Before glucose or glycogen can be used to generate energy it must be converted to a compound called glucose-6-phosphate (a)Requires the input of one ATP molecule (4)Glycolysis requires 10-12 enzymatic reactions for the breakdown of glycogen to pyruvic acid which is then converted to lactic acid (a)This all happens in the cells cytoplasm (5)This energy system does not produce large amounts of ATP (a)However is able to work even when the oxygen supply is limited (b)Predominate during the early minutes of high intensity exercise (6)Causes an accumulation of lactic accede in the muscles and body fluids (a)Without oxygen pyruvic acid is converted directly to lactic acid (i) The acidification of muscles inhibits further glycogen breakdown because it impairs glycotic enzyme function (ii)Also decrease the fibers calcium binding capacity and impedes muscle contraction (7)Phosphofructokinase: rate limiting enzyme in the glycotic pathway (a)Catalyzes the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1, 6- biphosphate (b)Increased ADP and P concentrations enhance PFK activity and speed up glycolysis (i) Elevated ATP slows glycolysis by inhibiting PFK (ii)Products of the Krebs cycle, such as citrate and hydrogen ions inhibit PFK


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