MUS 121 Chapter 2 Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Steiner on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mus 121 at a university taught by Benjamin Crofut in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
1/27/16 Chapter 2—Elements Key = tonality: the structuring (pitch choices) of harmony and melody around a specific musical note, called the tonic Tonic: the central/root/base note around which a musical composition is organized. Different notes indicate a different quality of character. o Ex. D is an exuberant and bright key, Eflat is a warm and lush key, C#minor is a hard and demented key Tonic Chord: A harmonic chord composed of tonic as its base note, and either a raised note to indicate a major key, or lowered note to indicate a minor key Types of Keys o Major Key: Composed with raised (sharp) notes, its major scale and character have an obvious quality of being positive and happy o Minor Key: Composed with lowered (flat) notes, its minor scale and character have a quality of being troubled and sad o Chromatic Key: Composed with a combination of raised and lowered notes in order to create the effect of minimal change. It’s character can be one of searching, ambiguity, falling or rising Tools for the Listener and Performer o Modulation: a shift from one key to another within a composition. Generally pieces will modulate in the middle to explore or accentuate a specific idea, and then modulate back to the tonic key to conclude. o Key Signature: A notation in written music that dictates the uniform raising or lowering of specific notes for the entirety of a piece. Helps performers anticipate whether a piece is in Major or Minor. Texture o Describes the relationships between layers of melody, harmony, and rhythm, which form a total soundexperience. o There are three separate types of texture in music, each defined by how it supports the main musical line (the main voice). o These three types are (in order of general appearance in music): Monophony, Polyphony, and Homophony o Monophony: A solo musical line. Multiple kinds of instruments may simultaneously play the musical line (multiple voices), but they must be in unison. o Polyphony: Counterpoint: A texture combining two or more independent voices, heard simultaneously Imitation: the repetition of a musical idea by another voice or voices o Homophony: A solo voice with accompanying elements. Can also be two solo voices sharing an identical rhythm, thus creating broad chords called a homorhythmic texture (think church hymns). Effectively used at cadences and concluding material. Form o The organization of musical ideas o Theme and Variations: A piece, based on an original theme, which explores variations on that theme o Binary vs. Ternary Form: AB vs. ABA, “A” representing a section of music, and “B” representing a contrasting section
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