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Microbiology Chap 1

by: UNT_Scientist

Microbiology Chap 1 Biol 2041


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About this Document

These are the notes for the introduction and the first chap.
Daniel Kunz
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Week 1  2016  Microbiology   Textbook: Microbiology, An Introduction , 2013) G. J. Tortora, B. R. Funke and C. L. Case    Chapter 1    ● Fig 1.2 van leeuwenhoek   ○ First person to describe an organism by making 1st microscope magnified by  25X coined term “animalcules” aka bacteria  ● Microorganisms are ubiquitous   ○ Minute living things usually to small to see with unaided eye  ○ Maintains balance between organisms and chemicals in our environment  ● Pathogenic   ○ Disease producing  ● Microbiology    ○ Bacteria  ■ Focus of class   ■ simple unicellular organisms   ■ Genetic material in a special nuclear membrane   ■ Inclosed cell wall with peptidoglycan   ■ Produces via binary fission   ■ Uses organic chemicals  ■ Called prokaryotes  ○ Protozoa   ■ Unicellular organisms   ■ Movement   ● Cilia   ● Flagella   ● Pseudopod  ○ False feet   ○ Example  ■ Amebae   ■ Live as free organisms or as parasites  ■ Can be photosynthetic   ○ Algae  ■ photosynthetic eukaryotes   ■ Sexual or asexual   ■ Composed of carbohydrate known as cellulose   ■ Don't need organic compounds from the environment   ■ Makes oxygen and carbohydrates used by their organisms   ○ Fungi   ■ Cell walls made of chain   ■ Eukaryotes   ■ Distinct nucleus containing DNA surrounded by nuclear membrane   ■ Can't carry out photosynthesis   ● Can look like plants  ■ Examples  ● Yeast  ● Mold  ○ Archaea  ■ Considered a prokaryote  ■ Made up of prokaryotic cells with a cell wall   ■ Lacks peptidoglycan   ■ Found in extreme environments  ● Methanogens  ○ produces methane during respiration  ● Extreme halophiles  ○ Love extremely salty environments   ● Extreme thermophiles   ○ Live in hot sulfurous water   ■ Unknown to cause human disease  ○ Virus  ■ Only seen with electron microscope   ■ Acellular   ● Not cellular  ■ Contains one type of nucleic acid in a core  ● So it contains either DNA or RNA  ● Core is surrounded by protein coat  ○ Coat is called lipid membrane  ● Fig 1.4 important name dates and discovery   ○ 1665 Leeuwenhoek  ○ 1857 Pasteur  ○ 1861 Pasteur  ○ 1864 Pasteur   ○ 1876 Koch   ○ 1884 Gram   ○ 1928 Fleming   ○ 1973 Berg  ○ 1981 Mitchell   ○ 1997 Prusiner  ■ Golden age of microbiology 1857­1884   ■ When we learned the most about microorganism   ● Table 1.2 Nobel prize and the discovery   ○ 1987 tonegawa  ○ 1989 bishop & varmus   ○ 1997 prusiner  ○ 2005 marshall & warren  ○ 2008 barre & montagnier  ● Modern day advances  ○ Genetic engineering computerized biology   ■ Bioinformatics  ■ Genomes   ● Biology is now tech driven   ● Mass of amount of microorganisms is the greatest because all organisms that would  recycle all the carbon are in ground not in the sky 10­15% cause disease  ● One pound of Microorganism in colon  ● Meta genomics  ○ complete genome of areas of soil or people  ● All organisms classified 3 groups    ○ Archaea   ■ Primitive bacteria  ■ Lacks peptidoglycan    ○ Bacteria   ■ contains peptidoglycan  ○ Eukaryotes   ■ Plants   ■ Animal   ■ Protist  ■ Fungi  ○ This is determined by organisms RNA and/or DNA it classifies inside domain   ● Timeline   ○ 4.5 billion years ago  ■ Earth born in Big Bang  ○ 3.8 billion years ago   ■ Archaea microorganism appear  ○ 2.7 billion years ago  ■ Oxygen appears   ○ .7 billion years ago  ■ Multicellular organisms appear   ○ .2 billion years ago  ■ Man appears  ● Idea war between Biogenesis and Spontaneous Generation  Biogenesis   Spontaneous Generation  1668 F. Redi ­flys touch meat, maggots  1745 John Needham's heated solution  appear from eggs therefore it's not  set out and organisms appear   spontaneous  1765 Lazzaro Spallanzani ­repeated  argues that you removed vital force that  Needham’s experiment in a closed  makes life possible O2 (which is  container no organisms appear   discovered by lavorisies)   1861 Louis Pasteur ­combines    Spallanzani and Needham's experiment  with the S shaped flask (fig 1.3) noticed  law to no growth   ○ 1735 Carolus Linnaeus   ■ Binomial name system created  ■ However not applied to virus do to their inherent lack of life   ● Atom structure fig 2.1   ○ Electron shells   ■ Contain negative electrons   ○ Nucleus   ■ Contain neutral neutrons  ■ Contains positive protons   ○ Atomic weight   ■ Sum of protons and neutrons  ○ Atomic number  ■ Number of electrons  ○ Different bonds   ■ Covalent bonds form between two electrons  ● Atoms combine in the outermost shells  ● Missing or extra electrons in outermost chill are called valence  ■ The number of protons and electrons is equal in the atom   ■ Ions are atoms that have gained or lost electrons and then are charged  ■ Ionic bonds  ● Are attractions between ions of opposite change where one atom  loses electrons and another gains electrons   ■ Compounds are made up of molecules that are different   ● H2​  ● C6​ 12​ 6 ■ Molecular weight is the sum of all of the atomic weights  ■ Forces holding compounds together are chemical bonds   ○ Dimple movement due to unequal sharing of electrons   ■ Interactions are determined by the charges  ○ Relative bond strengths   ■ Covalent   ● 125­418 kilojoules/mole  ■ Ionic   ● 10­20 kilojoules/mole  ■ Hydrogen   ● 2­10 kilojoules/mole  1 kilojoule is equal to .24 kilo cal        


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