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IR 350/HI 334 January 26 Lecture

by: Maritt Nowak

IR 350/HI 334 January 26 Lecture IR 350, HI 334

Marketplace > Boston University > International Studies > IR 350, HI 334 > IR 350 HI 334 January 26 Lecture
Maritt Nowak
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The Political Partition of Germany I. A Remnant of Wartime Unity: Nuremberg & Denazification II. The Structure & Function of the Allied Occupation III. The Causes & Consequences of "Zonal Repara...
History of International Relations 1945-Present
William Keylor
Class Notes
international relations, history, The Cold War, Germany, European History
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maritt Nowak on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IR 350, HI 334 at Boston University taught by William Keylor in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see History of International Relations 1945-Present in International Studies at Boston University.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
History of International Relations 1945­present Lecture Notes: 1/26/2016 The Political Partition of Germany, 1945­49 Outline: I. A Remnant of Wartime Unity: Nuremberg II. The Structure & Function of the Allied Occupation III. The Causes & Consequences of “Zonal Reparations” IV. The Anomaly of Berlin V. Two Issues: Reunification and Borders VI. The West German Economic Miracle 1945: Germany defeated I. A Remnant of Wartime Unity: Nuremberg A. 1946­1949 B. most of Hitler’s close conspirators sentenced to death C. few get life in prison (architect), some acquitted (banker) D. denazification: remove political leaders and Nazi authority E. Should we completely disable Germany? No. II. The Inter­Allied Occupation Regime A. 1945­49 B. 4 zones (French, British, Soviet, US) C. Headquarters in Berlin (in Soviet zone but other 3 countries have access) D. Berlin also has 4 sectors (problems in Cold War) III. Reparations A. Soviets get the most reparations B. BUT the industrial zones of Germany are occupied by the West C. Potsdam Conference 1. 1945 2. Stalin, Truman, Secretary of State James Byrnes and Foreign Minister V. Molotov D. Germans are starving E. Russians can only take reparations from their zone F. 1946: Germans must be allowed to recover economically G. Russians fear Germany will align with the West H. Byrnes in Stuttgart 1. We aren’t here to punish you 2. We will help you recover 3. end of appeasement towards Russia 4. reduce reparations I. Soviet­US impasse over Germany 1. Paris 2. 1946 3. alliance breaks up J. The Western zones come together 1. 1946­1948 2. removal of restrictions on productive resources (labor, capital, exports) 3. British and American zones combine first 4. The French aren’t loving it, but join in 1948 5. Marshall plan aid helps sway them 6. Stalin is not amused­ economics now, politics later IV. The Anomaly of Berlin A. 110 miles inside Soviet zone B. Crisis until 1961 C. Why divide Berlin? 1. meetings for organization have to occur 2. the occupying powers need to stay out of each other’s way 3. Berlin is symbolic, it was the 3rd Reich’s capitol D. before the merge 1. Britain wants Germany to recover then pay them 2. France wants Germany to pay them then recover E. why fix Germany? 1. the engine of European economic production 2. worried about Russians, create West German bloc, containment 3. look what happened last time when we didn’t fix Germany F. Stalin: use Berlin to prevent a western State G. Currency Reform in Germany 1. 1948 2. post­war: most popular currency in Germany was cigarettes 3. creation of the Deutschmark  H. 1st Crisis: Berlin blockade, 1948­1949 1. 1948: Stalin blocks roads for “repairs” 2. the West cannot bring food and fuel to its sectors in Berlin (attempt to starve out) 3. Allies respond with Berlin Airlift 4. Why doesn’t Russia bring down the planes?  a) US aircraft have been deployed to Britain b) US has a monopoly on atomic weapons c) these planes could technically carry atomic weapons 5. When the food and fuel arrives, its a public relations bonanza a) “Milk­ new weapon of democracy” 6. “Operation Little Vittles” a) Colonel Gail S. Halvorsen­ the “Candy Bomber” 7. This project is expensive, some wonder why the Germans should get help 8. Really tough job for the Air Force 9. Blockade ends Spring 1949 10. Celebration in the West (it’s a big win for Truman) VII.The Division of Germany Into Two States A. communist east, capitalist and democratic west B. Berlin stays split in 4 (Allied access and free travel) C. West Berlin is the escape hatch in the Iron Curtain D. The Establishment of West Germany 1. May 23, 1949 2. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer a) not elected, but parliament was b) from Cologne (Rhineland) c) pro­France E. The Establishment of East Germany 1. October 7, 1949 2. Communist Party Secretary Walter Ulbricht VIII. The West German Dream: Reunification A. refusal to recognize East Germany B. West Germany speaks for all Germany C. East German insecurity Czechoslovakia re­annexes the Sudetenland Poland  ­ the Oder­Neisse Line ­ Danzig becomes Gdansk ­ Russia gets part of Poland, but Poland gets part of East Germany ­ nobody is there to stop them ­ Germans and East Prussians have to leave (ethnic cleansing) ­ German refugees expelled from Poland go to West Germany ­ “Compulsory population transfer” ­ West Germany will not recognize the new borders (like Hitler? Pols and Czechoslovakians  scared) VII. The Challenge of Economic Recovery “West German Miracle” ­ effects of Allied “Strategic Bombing” ­ total destruction ­ population centers ­ psychological weapon ­ Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard ­ increase productivity ­ invest in plants & equipment ­ advantage: old plants were all destroyed, new ones are state­of­the­art ­ steel industry — enough for EXPORTS! ­ Krupp steel works ­ Ruhr Valley ­ Automobile Industry ­ cars for the masses: “People’s Wagon” (Volkswagen) ­ cars for the elite: Mercedes­Benz


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