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Chemistry Chapter 1

by: Courtney Beckwood

Chemistry Chapter 1 CHEM 1110 - 02

Courtney Beckwood
University of Memphis
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These are the notes from Chapter 1 of our Chemistry lecture
General Chemistry I Lecture
Henry Kurtz
Class Notes
Chemistry, Courtney Beckwood, memphis




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Beckwood on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1110 - 02 at University of Memphis taught by Henry Kurtz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 144 views.

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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 1 Key Terms and Definitions Building Blocks: – Atoms and Molecules Definition of Chemistry: –Science that seeks to understand the properties of matter by studying the particles that compose it. Mixture: – No fixed composition – Homogeneous Mixture  Solution; Same throughout –Heterogeneous Mixture  Varies in composition or properties. Substance: – Fixed composition – Elements or Compound History and Starting Point Law of Conservation of Mass (Lavoisier) • The total mass remains constant during a chemical reaction. Law of Definite Proportions (Proust) • All samples of a compound have the same composition (proportions, by mass, of the elements present). Atomic Theory of Matter (Dalton) Law of Multiple Proportions • The masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the second element are in the ratio of small whole numbers. Experiment: N reacts with O to form two compounds. If 5.0 g of N is used, then one compound takes 5.7 g of O and the other 11.4 g. Ratio is 2:1. • All matter is composed of atoms: extremely small, indivisible particles. • All atoms of a given element are alike in mass and other properties, but differ from atoms of other elements. • Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements unite in fixed proportions – AB A2B, AB3 , A2B3 … • A chemical reaction involves a rearrangement of atoms to produce new compounds. No atoms are created, destroyed, or broken apart in a chemical reaction. History of Electron Faraday 1838 – Cathode Rays • Rays produced perpendicular to surface of a cathode when current was passed through the tube. • Bend in a magnetic field. • Make glass fluoresce. • Independent of cathode material. • Light ray or particle? JJ Thompson – Late 1800’s • Cathode ray deflection in magnetic field did not depend on gas inside tube. • Not ions from gas. • Charged particle in all matter. • Obtained value of me /e – mass to charge ratio for electron. • Compare with H+ -- either much smaller mass or much larger charge, or maybe in between. Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment • e = -1.602x10-10 coulomb, therefore, me = 9.109x10-31 kg/electron Atomic Models Evenly distributed positive charge with embedded electrons – Thomson To test, Rutherford bombarded thin foils with particles (He2+) to deflect off of electrons to find their distribution. Results: Few particles deflected sharply back and most passed through unchanged Nucleus: Very small positive core that contains protons and neutrons. Positive ions = loss of electrons -- mass spectrometer to measure m/e ratios. How do you weigh an atom? Assign a value to one and measure relative masses. Atomic Mass unit (amu or u): • Assigned a mass of exactly 12 u to the pure isotope 1C (1 u = 1.66054 x 10 -2g). Atomic mass of an Element: • The weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element. Few Corrections to Dalton Subatomic Particles • Proton: Charge +1; Rel. mass 1 • Electron: Charge -1; Rel. mass 1/1836 • Neutron: Charge 0; Rel. mass close to 1 Mass Number (A) = Protons + Neutrons. Atomic Number (Z) = Number of protons and defines an element. Isotopes = Atoms of a given element can have differing weights (different number of neutrons). Chemical symbols = 11C, 12C, 13C, 14C Measurements • SI Base Units Temperature • Kelvin is SI unit. • Fahrenheit is good for weather and cooking. o 32 F is freezing; 212 F is boiling for water • Celsius is used in scientific work (and most of the world) 0 C is freezing; 100 C is boiling for water • TF = 1.8 TC + 32


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