PSY 1010 Chp 4/Week 3
PSY 1010 Chp 4/Week 3 PSY 1010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Belson on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Amy Kohl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chp 3 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 6:00 PM Consciousness:subjective awareness of mental events, and being aware of ourselves and our environment Dualism: the mind and body are separate A. Descartes-connected by pineal glad, can have casual interaction Minimal Materialism- everything has to be made of matter,so the mind cannot be separate Altered states of consciousness A. Mental state other than ordinary waking consciousness B. Can be either a decrease or increase in alertness a. Ex- using stimulants can make you more aware/alert Can be divided A. Dangerous B. Texting and driving Examples of altered states of consciousness- Daydreaming, sex, orgasm, food, hallucinations, dreaming, hypnosis, etc. Conscious vs unconscious A. Unconscious mind processes info simultaneously- bottom of the iceberg, its deeper and bigger, not seen B. Conscious mind processes info sequentially- tip of iceberg Dual processing: the principle that informationis often simultaneously processed on a separate conscious and unconscious tracks A. Best exhibited by blindsight, a condition in which a person can respond to visual stimulus without being consciouslyaware of it Suggests we have a visual action track and a visual perception track Selective attention: the focusing on conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Inattentional blindness: failing to see visible objects when our attention is focused elsewhere Change blindness: failing to notice changes in the environment,sometimeswe don't notice changes in people when asking for directions, constructionworker story Sleep: periodic, natural, easily reversible loss of consciousness,as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, anesthesia, etc Circadian Rhythm A. Internal clock set on a 24.8 hour cycle-newbornshave no sense of day or night, this is not something we're born with B. Hypothalamus a. Regulates temp, metabolism,sleep C. Light influences your sleep cycle a. Jet lag b. Screen time at night can trick your body into thinking it is still light out, and make it difficult to sleep D. Circadian rhythm includes dip at midday a. Siestas-many countries allow for a midday nap in their employeesor students schedules b. Not related to eating E. Short naps increase alertness and productivity E. Short naps increase alertness and productivity Sleep stages A. EEGs show we go through 5 distinct sleep stages about every 90 minutes B. More recent research showed only 4 C. We go through a fairly regular pattern through these stages while we sleep D. REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep): a. a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonlyoccur, also called paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active E. NREM-1: just falling asleep a. Can have that feeling of falling and hypnogogic hallucinations b. If awoken in this stage, we often don't think we were asleep F. NREM-2: presence of sleep spindles (bursts of brain activity) G. NREM-3: AKA slow wave sleep a. Difficult to waken REM Sleep: A. Heart rate increases B. Breathing becomes rapid and irregular C. Dreams are vivid, emotional,story like D. Genitals becomearoused, regardless of dream content E. Motorcortex is active but you are paralyzed (sleep paralysis) Why do we sleep? 5 theories 1. Sleep protects: sleep at night when we don't see well keeps us away from harm, allowing us to breed another day 2. Sleep helps recuperate: we restoreand repair brain tissue when we sleep 3. Sleep helps restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day: memoriesare consolidated when we sleep a. Problemsare easier the next day, our brain works on them while we sleep 4. Sleep feeds creative thinking 5. Sleep supports growth: growth hormoneis secreted during sleep Why do we have to dream? Theory 1: Freuds wish fulfillment A. Dreams provide a "psychic safety valve"that helps us discharge unacceptable feelings a. Manifest content: according to Freud, this is the rememberedstory line of a dream b. Latent content: the underlying meaning of a dream, which could be threatening if expressed directly B. Criticisms a. Lacks scientific support b. Dreams can be interpreted myriad ways Theory 2: Information Processing A. Dreams help us to sort out and even fix our memoriesof daily events a. Research supports this view i. Brain areas involvedin learning and memoryare active during REM B. Criticism a. This may also take place in other stages b. What about things we haven't done? Why are those things in our dreams? Theory 3: physiologicalfunction A. We sleep to develop and preserve pathways B. Developmentallythis makes sense B. Developmentallythis makes sense a. Infants are developing their neural networksand spend more time in REM sleep C. Criticism a. Why do we have meaningful dreams? Theory 4: neural activation A. We dream to make sense of the neural static that happens. (Neural firings occur while dreaming) B. Random neural firing in visual cortex + limbic system (emotions)activation = dreams C. Criticism: a. The individual is still weaving the story, so even if the firing is random, how they interpret it is not, and is meaningful on its own Theory 5: Cognitive development A. The content of dreams reflect the developmentof the dreamer in terms of their knowledge and understanding B. Criticisms a. Doesn’t address the neuroscience of dreams Daydreams A. Newer research has explored the link between daydreams and dreams a. Has similar functions of dreaming b. We may be unconsciously solving problems and consolidating knowledge and memories Sleep disorders A. Night terrors a. Sudden arousal with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions i. Not consciouslyaware b. Occur during NREM-3 i. Vs nightmares that occur in REM 1) A bad dream ii. Occurs more often in children because they spend more time sleeping B. Insomnia a. Recurring problems staying asleep or falling asleep i. Hard to treat ii. Anxiety exacerbates C. Narcolepsy: overpoweringurge to fall asleep a. May occur while talking or standing up b. Often treated with specific stimulants D. Sleep apnea: failure to breathe when asleep a. Often occurs in overweight men b. Can lead to tiredness during the day and puts strain on the heart c. People who experiencesleep apnea have varying degrees of it occurring d. Raise in veterans-Couldhave to do with dust and chemicals mixed with stress of combat E. Sleepwalking and Sleep talking a. Occurring during NREM-3 sleep b. Usually harmless i. Often don't recall the event c. Appears to be heritable d. Occurs more often in children F. REM behavior disorder- sleep paralysis is inhibited, and someonethrashes around a lot or in some cases acts out nightmares cases acts out nightmares a. 20 murder cases involving this as a defense PsychoactiveDrug: a chemical substance that alters thinking, memory,perceptions, and or mood. A. Includes street drugs, prescriptions, and many herbs Tolerance: the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effects Addiction: increasing doses needed to experiencethe effect of the drug Physicaldependence: a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal Withdrawal: the discomfortand distress that follow continuing the use of an addictive drug Psychologicaldependence: a psychological need for a drug, such as to escape negative emotions Types of drugs that alter consciousness: Hallucinogens:psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input A. LSD, PCP, and mescaline B. Alter interpretation of sensory info to produce bizarre or unusual perceptions C. Chronic use leads to psychotic symptoms,paranoia, depression, and changes in the brain D. Abnormal firing in visual pathways E. Tolerance comesquick Depressant: drugs that reduce neural activity and slows the body function Alcohol: slows judgements and impairs impulse control A. Slows neural processing B. Disrupts memoryformation C. Reduces self awareness and control D. Chronic heavy alcohol use is associatedwith brain shrinkage Barbiturates:tranquilizers A. Used to treat anxiety, and a sleep aid B. Less commonlyprescribed today due to abuse potential, and safer drugs have been invented Opiates: heroin, oxycodone,morphine are examples A. Can block pain receptors and depress neural functioning B. Also can cause euphoria C. Heavy prolonged use can cause the brain to stop producing its own endorphins D. Prolonged use means more of the same drug for the same effect Stimulants: excite neural activity and speed up bodily function A. Caffeine, nicotine, methamphetamine,cocaine, ecstasy B. They can a. Dilate pupils b. Diminish appetite c. Allow you to stay awake longer d. Bring about euphoria e. Hypertension f. Cause addiction Methamphetamine: causes euphoria due to the release of dopamine A. Highly addictive B. Toxic effect to the brain, even a few months of regular use can lead to change in appearance, depression, and loss of neural activity depression, and loss of neural activity C. Effects can last 8 hours from single dose Cocaine: euphoric effects similar to stimulants a. Quick rush b. Highly addictive, especially in crack c. Crash comes quickly due to depletion of several neurotransmitters Ecstasy:MDMA, causes release of natural reserves of serotonin. This causes feelings of euphoria, empathy, increases tactile sensations, and a loss of inhibition A. Created to help during therapy B. Research suggests that long term use could cause permanent serotonin depletion and cause serotonin receptors to become less responsive Marijuana A. Difficult to classify because it shows characteristics of several classes B. Setting can play a large role in effects, as can expectationof effects C. Can disinhibit like alcohol and has mild hallucinogenic effects D. Euphoria, loss of muscle control, and memoryloss Hypnosis: a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur An individual who is hypnotized is believed to be in a highly relaxed, and in a suggestible state A. People differ in how hypnotizable they are The basic suggestion effect: the tendency to act as though their behavior is out of their control, participant will do things they might not normally do because they feel the burden lies on the hypnotist Can hypnotized individuals really be made to do things they normally wouldn’t? A. Hypnotized individuals dipped their hand in "acid" (it was water) and splashed it in the researchers face, all due to suggestion B. People said they didn’t do it How to induce hypnosis 1. Hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said 2. The person is told to relax and feel tired 3. The hypnotist tells the person to let go, and accept suggestions easily 4. The person is supposed to use vivid imagination Memoryrecalled under hypnosis is not admissible in court Hypnosis in therapy A. Found effective in stress related disorders and obesity, but not addictions B. Posthypnotic suggestion:a suggestion made during hypnosis session, to be carried out while the person is no longer hypnotized Hypnosis as dissociation: A. Essentially dual processing B. Hypnotism works on the conscious mind and the unconscious mind is actually aware of what is going on C. Miller and Bowers 1993-ice water case, participants reported that they felt no pain Hypnosis as social role playing: Hypnosis as social role playing: Social-CognitiveTheory of Hypnosis: People are not actually in an altered state, but are merely playing the role 1/28/16:Watched Nova's What are Dreams?
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