PSYC 101 Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior Notes
PSYC 101 Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior Notes PSYC 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angela Potter on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Towson University taught by Barbara Wilson in Spring 2013. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
PSYC 101 Ch. 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior▯ ▯ Brain and Behavior▯ • Scientiﬁc Evidence: the brain is most intimately link to psychological life:▯ • Emotions: Happy, sad▯ • Memory▯ • Cognition: ability to think, problem solve, ability to make decisions, pay attention▯ • Behavior: how we behave, ability to walk, run…Violence etc.▯ ▯ Determinant of Death▯ • The importance of the brain is dramatized by the concept of “brain death”▯ • When is a person legally dead?▯ • Absence of breath? Heartbeat?▯ • Today, the heart and lungs could be strong and the doctor declares the person dead:▯ • Brain Death: parts of the brain involved in thinking, feeling, acting are no longer alive- psychological life is gone▯ ▯ Th Brain▯ • Commands the central Nervous System (CNS)▯ • Weighs about 3 pounds▯ • Is slightly larger than a grapefruit ▯ • Has a crinkled outer layer (Shelled walnut)▯ • Inner consistency: undercook custard or ripe avocado▯ • Continues to develop through mid 20’s▯ ▯ Nervous System (NS) ▯ • is our bodies electrochemical communication system▯ • NS is made of billions of neurons (never cells)▯ • These are the basic building blocks of the nervous system- the basic units▯ • Neurons are continuously at work processing information▯ ▯ Neurons (Nerve Cells)▯ • Nearly all the neurons we posses during life are developed before birth▯ • Whereas, the neuronal networks are not formed until after the birth and throughout the developmental processes▯ ▯ Characteristics of the NS▯ • Complexity: the brain is composed of billions of nerve cells▯ • Integration: the brain coordinates and integrates information from many sources▯ • Adaptability (plasticity): can adapt to change▯ • Electrochemical transmission: powered by both Chemical and Electrical messages▯ ▯ Nervous System: Pathways▯ • Pathways are specialized to either receive or send information to or from the brain▯ Afferent Nerves: have to do with the nerve cells that work with the senses. ▯ • Sensory neurons receive information from the body and carries the information to the spinal cordon and brain▯ Efferent Neurons: motor neurons carry information from the brain to the body (muscles) and controls brain output▯ Neuronal Networks: Integrate the sensory input and motor output▯ ▯ Nervous System: Divided into two parts▯ 1. Central Nervous System (CNS)▯ • Brain and spinal cord (99% of all neurons)▯ 2. Peripheral Nervous system▯ • Caries messages to and from the CNS (afferent and efferent pathways) and the organs, glands, and muscles of the body▯ ▯ Peripheral Nervous system▯ Two major Divisions:▯ Somatic Nervous system- Carries sensory information to the CNS to: ▯ • Muscular Activity▯ Autonomic Nervous System- Carries messages to and from the CNS to the body’s organ and glands (monitors breathing, heart rate, digestion)▯ Divided into two parts:▯ 1. Sympathetic Nervous System: arouses the body: Fight or Flight▯ • Dilates the pupils▯ • Dilates the cerebral vessels▯ Decreases salivary gland activity▯ • • Stimulates sweat gland activity▯ • Stimulates digestive tract activity▯ • Relaxes the bladder▯ 2. Parasympathetic Nervous System: Calms▯ • Constricts the pupils▯ • Constricts the cerebral vessels▯ • Stimulates secretion of saliva▯ • Slows the heartbeat▯ • Decreases sweat gland activity▯ • Contracts the bladder▯ ▯ Nervous System- Nerve Cells: Neurons▯ Neurons:▯ • Information Processing▯ • About 100 Billion▯ • Mirror neurons (in primates)▯ Glial Cells: provide support and nutrition▯ ▯ Neurons: Structure - processes information▯ • Cell body: contains the cell nucleus▯ • Dendrites: receive information and channels it toward the cell body▯ • Axon: carries information away from the cells, it acts on the next cell▯ • On each axon there is a layer of fat▯ Myelin sheath: layer of fat that encases most axons▯ • • Insulates and helps messages travel faster over longer distances▯ • Multiple sclerosis▯ ▯ Neural Impulse▯ • Messages are carried down an axon as a series of single electrical clicks▯ • Variations in the rate and timing of clicks differentiates the messages▯ ▯ Synapses and Neurotransmitters▯ Synapses / Synaptic Gap▯ • Space or gap between the sending axons terminal buttons and the receiving dendrite or cell body▯ Synaptic Transmission▯ • Electrical impulse is converted into a chemical signal▯ • axon vesicle releases neurotransmitter into gap▯ Neurotransmitters▯ • Carry information across the synaptic gap to the next neuron▯ • Acteylcholoine▯ Muscle actions, learning, memory▯ • • Alzheimer’s diseases, Low Ach levels▯ • GABA▯ • anxiety: Low GABA levels▯ • Norepinephrine▯ • stress and mania: too much norepinephrine levels▯ • depression: low norepinephrine levels▯ • regulates sleep state in conduction with Ach▯ • Dopamine▯ • voluntary movement▯ • stimulant drugs: activate dopamine receptors▯ • Parkinson’s disease: low levels of dopamine▯ • schizophrenia: high levels of dopamine▯ • Serotonin▯ • regulation of sleep, mood, attention, learning▯ • depression: decrease in serotonin levels▯ • Prozac: increase in serotonin levels▯ Endorphins ▯ • • natural opiates: reward/pleasure centers▯ • mediate feelings of pleasure and pain (runners high)▯ • Oxytocin▯ • both a hormone and a neurotransmitter▯ • related to onset of lactation in new mothers▯ • related to attachment / emotional bonds▯ Note: Drugs can interfere with neurotransmitters▯ • mimics or enhances NT effects▯ blocks effects on NT▯ • ▯ Neural Networks▯ • interconnected pathways of nerve cells▯ • integrate sensory input and motor output▯ • takes years to develop▯ • a given piece of information embedded in multiple connections between neurons▯ ▯ Brain Organization▯ Hindbrain▯ • Located where spinal cord enters the base of the skull▯ Three major divisions▯ 1. Medulla- control breathing, regulates reﬂexes and standing upright▯ 2. Pons- sleep & arousal▯ 3. Cerebellum: complex motor coordination, balance / muscle coordination ▯ Midbrain▯ • located between the hindbrain and forebrain ▯ • relays information between the brain and eyes and ears▯ • Brainstem: most ancient part of the brain▯ • Basic survival functions: alertness▯ Forebrain▯ • Limbic system▯ • Memory, perception and emotion▯ Amygdala ▯ • • discrimination of objected needed for survival ▯ • emotional awareness and expression▯ • Hippocampus: formation and recall of memories ▯ • Thalamus ▯ • sensory relay station between upper and lower brain▯ • Basal Ganglia: coordination of voluntary movements▯ • Hypothalamus: regulation of the body▯ • eating, drinking, sexual behaviors▯ • regulate body’s internal state▯ • emotion, stress, reward▯ ▯ Cerebral Cortex- the brain has two hemispheres ▯ Each hemisphere is divided into four regions or lobes:▯ • Occipital (vision)▯ • Temporal(hearing, language processing, memory)▯ • Frontal (intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles)▯ Parietal (spatial location, attention, motor control)▯ • The two Hemispheres of the Cortex:▯ Left hemisphere▯ • verbal processing, speech, grammar▯ • Broca’s area▯ • Wemicke’s area▯ Right hemisphere▯ • spatial perception, visual recognition, emotion▯ ▯ Endoctrine System▯ set of glands that regulate the body by releasing hormones into the blood stream▯ • hormones: chemical messages manufactured by the glands▯ • relatively slow communication system▯ • interconnected with the nervous system ▯ • pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes▯ ▯ Brain Damage and Plasticity▯ Recovery from brain damage depends on:▯ • age of the individual ▯ • extent of the damage
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