HRMN 5540 Notes
HRMN 5540 Notes HRMN 5540
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by 921650391 on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HRMN 5540 at Auburn University taught by Terry Self in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Managing Human Resources in Business, management at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
1 Chapter 2: Job Performance Concepts and Measures Study Guide/Assignment 1. Job performance concepts and measures a) Applicants who score high on selection tests are predicted to do well in their future job performance b) Job performance i. Job performance traditionally meant task performance: How well workers completed job activities (commonly referred to as job tasks) was how well they performed their jobs. 1. This thinking was born during the time when much of the work was physical activities. 2. Many jobs were not in manufacturing, were in agriculture, or small business. 3. Most workers operated individually with limited interaction with other workers. 4. In the majority of the work, the results of these tasks could be seen and counted. 5. These tasks were directly related to the success of the manufacturing company, farm, or organization. 6. High performance from individuals meant more money for the organization ii. An employee’s production was easy to measure iii. Selection tools measured knowledge of topics and tasks iv. Concept of job performance and nature of selection tests changed 1. Teams of workers 2 2. Collaboration required in complex fields 3. Workers think, plan, make observations, draw conclusions, interpret data – not easily measurable. v. From a historic perspective, selection mainly involved gathering information from applicants that measured their knowledge of: 1. How to perform tasks. 2. Knowledge of topics necessary to perform tasks 3. Actual performance on trial tasks. vi. Name two selection measures that were used during this time: 1. knowledge tests could be scored for right answers. 2. mistakes in performing a task could be counted. vii. List two reasons the number of manufacturing jobs have decreased: 1. Less expensive labor in developing countries 2. The increased used of computerized assembly machines viii. List three reasons the service industry has steadily increased: 1. The growth of cities. 2. The movement from farms and towns to urban centers. 3. Towns to urban - Urban dwellers had to purchase clothing, food, furniture, entertainment, etc. – demand led to stores, restaurants, furniture marts, entertainment venues, etc. – these business employed workers to deliver goods and services ix. After assembly lines were developed, workers stopped performing beginning- to-end manufacturing. x. With the rise of service and knowledge-based work, groups of employees interacting became common. xi. It is not easy to observe the work that incumbents in knowledge-based jobs do. xii. How job performance is viewed 1. Task performance still the primary type of facet of job performance. 2. Work characteristics behaviors (WCBs) measured in addition to task behaviors 3. Name three important facets of job performance: a) organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) a) These are most often helping behaviors that one employee directs to other employees, such as: (a) assisting in finishing a task, (b) sharing knowledge that is important to the job, and (c) contributing to discussion about solutions to job problems. 3 b) adaptive performance a) This refers to how an employee responds to changes in the work environment, such as: (a) shorter time for project completion, (b) change in work procedures, and (c) change in manager or new work group members. c) counterproductive work behaviors a) These are bad behaviors such as stealing, embezzlement, fighting, fraud, and sabotage. xiii. How job performance is measured 1. Count number if produced items/ services rendered 2. Supervisors make judgments on a worker’s job behaviors xiv. Type of selection measured used – measuring of WRCs continues, but job- knowledge tests and work performance added 1. O*NET identifies numerous WRCs by providing four general categories of characteristics (traditional applications also expanded): a) Abilities b) Occupational interests c) Work values d) Work styles 2. Among the most important selection instruments are those that measure the following: a) cognitive ability b) personality traits c) integrity d) judgment of the best option to purse in specific job situations. 2. Task performance a) Production data i. The results of work comprising things that can be counted, seen, and compared ii. Measures based on specific nature of job tasks iii. So many measures, it is not possible to summarize 4 iv. Production Data consist of the results of work. Many consider the use of production data the most desirable type of measure for the following number reasons: 1. Such data are often easy to gather because they are collected routinely for business operations such as production planning and budgeting. 2. the importance of such measures is thought to be obvious and easily understood. Production data are the direct result of job actions. They are the objectives of the work process. 3. these data are thought to be unchallengeable and easily accepted by workers. Production output can be seen and counted; therefore, no argument can be made about its measurement. b) Judgmental data i. An individual familiar with the work of another is required to judge the work ii. Usually uses a rating scale with numerical values iii. Usually done by the immediate supervisor, but can be done by subordinates, peers, customers iv. Judgmental data increasingly being used for performance measurement v. Types of Judgmental Instruments – Three of the most common include 1. Trait Rating Scales (a bad method, don’t use) - Supervisor evaluates subordinates on the extent to which each individual possesses personal characteristics thought to be necessary for good work performance. 2. Simple Behavioral Scale (better, can use) - Based on information about tasks determined from job analysis. Supervisor rates each subordinate on major or critical tasks of the job 3. BARS or BES (an even better method) - These are judgmental measures developed to define the scale’s rating points by using job behaviors as examples. They are systematically developed by obtaining information from workers and supervisors involved with a particular job. i. The main difference between Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) and Behavioral Expectation Scales (BES) is in the wording of the incidents. BES Incidents are phrased as expected behavior (e.g., “can be expected to greet a regular customer”). 1. Wording difference points out to supervisors that the employee does not 5 need to demonstrate the actual behavior of the incident to be scored at that level. 2. The incident can be interpreted as representative of the performance of the employee BARS Incidents are worded to reflect actual work behaviors (e.g. greets customers) 4. 360-Degree Feedback is another form of using judgment data for measuring performance. It gathers judgmental performance ratings from three following groups: i. superiors ii. peers iii. subordinates of the individual being reviewed 5. Issues with Judgmental Scales i. May be based on production data a) Production data is usually narrow, focusing on end products ii. Inadvertent bias, commonly called rater error, is most frequently described in one of the following four ways: Halo 1. Is rating a subordinate equally on different performance items because of a rater’s general impression of the worker. Leniency 2. Occurs when a disproportionate number of workers receive high ratings. Severity 3. Occurs when a disproportionate number of workers receive low ratings. Central 4. Occurs when a large number of subordinates receive ratings in the tendency middle of the scale. 3. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors a) Not formally part of the job, but done by a worker to assist other workers or the organization i. Teaching new workers ii. Assisting other workers iii. Putting extra time and effort into work b) Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are the behaviors that individuals do at work that are not formally part of their job task behaviors but are doe by 6 individuals to assist other workers or the organization itself. List Podsakoff and colleagues’ model for dimensions of OCBs: i. Helping behavior ii. Sportsmanship iii. Organizational loyalty iv. Organizational compliance v. Individual initiative vi. Civic virtue vii. Self-development c) What prompts OCBs? i. Linked to organization commitment, perceptions of fairness, and leader supportiveness d) Relationship of OCBs with Other Performance Measure – managers are influenced by worker’s OCBs, especially judgmental performance evaluations i. OCBs influence managers’ judgments of individual workers’ overall job performance. ii. Early research indicated that OCBs positively related to measures of organizational effectiveness such as: quantity of performance, quality of performance, financial efficiency (e.g., operating efficiency), and customer service. iii. OCBs more strongly related to work unit performance in those units with decentralized, interactive decision making than in those that were more centralized. iv. Bergeron and associates found that, in organizations with outcome-based control systems, the time spent on OCBs had a costs. e) Measurement of OCBs Self-report judgmental scales used 4. Adaptive performance a) Adaptive performance (AP) is a deliberate change in the thinking or behavior of an individual because of an anticipated or existing change in the work activities or work environment. 7 i. Differences in WRCs can be used to predict differences in AP ii. Looking ahead, OCBs and AP will be included as parts of job performance in the near future b) Eight dimensions of adaptive behavior identified by Pulakos and colleagues: 1. Handling emergencies or crisis situations 2. Handling work stress 3. Solving problems creatively 4. Dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situations 5. Learning work tasks, technologies, and procedures 6. Demonstrating interpersonal adaptability 7. Demonstrating cultural adaptability 8. Demonstrating physically oriented adaptability c) Most research work using adaptive performance in selection has concentrated on determining WRCs that would predict AP. i. Cognitive complexity – consider and integrate conflicting information ii. Frame Changing – alternate between multiple ways of attending to and mterpreting problems and solution strategies iii. Resiliency – to persist and recover quickly iv. Problem solving – to persist and work through the details of a problem v. Learning ability – to apply lessons learned from previous experience d) Research indicates that is a viable measure for AP that could be used by supervisors to rate the performance of subordinates. 5. Counterproductive Work Behavior a) Undesirable performance actions that harm the organization and often its employees and customers i. Any intentional behavior by an organization member viewed by the organization as contrary to its legitimate interests ii. Integrity tests developed to identify applicants with higher than normal probability of CWB 8 iii. CWB costs billions of dollars b) Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is any intentional behavior by an organization member viewed by the organization as contrary to its legitimate interests c) Various estimates at how much CWBs cost organization range in the bill d) It has been suggested that CWBs be divided into two groups: i. actions of deviance toward individuals (ID) ii. actions toward the organization (OD) e) OCBs and CWBs are moderately negatively correlated i. Two distinct constructs, not a single continuum of behavior ii. E.g. Cognitive ability inversely predicted the extent to which individuals engage in CWB. Look at the following list of CWBs and indicate whether each CWB would be categorized as ID or OD: OD Theft: taking cash or property, giving away goods or services, misuse of employee discount ID Alcohol use: alcohol use on job, coming to work under the influence of alcohol OD Misuse of information: revealing confidential information, falsifying records OD Misuse of time and resources: wasting time, altering time cards, conducting personal business during work time ID Unsafe behavior: failure to follow safety procedures, failure to learn safety procedures OD Poor attendance: unexcused absence or tardiness, misusing sick leave ID Inappropriate physical actions: physically attacking coworkers, physical sexual advances toward coworker ID Inappropriate verbal actions: arguing with customers, verbally harassing coworkers OD Destruction of property: defacing, damaging, or destroying property; sabotaging production OD Poor quality work: intentionally slow or sloppy work f) List two measurements used to collect data about CWBs: 1. Written records are made by supervisors of behaviors that the employee has done. 9 2. Judgmental surveys. 6. Appropriate Characteristics of job performance measures When measuring job performance, the information collected should be useful. This means that the information collected yields data that accurately summarize an employee’s performance. List four types of performance measures that should be present to make sure that the information collected with the measure useful. 1. Individualization – most collect data about performance the individual controls 2. Relevance – must measure production of critical or important parts of job 3. Measurability – must be possible to generate a number that represents the amount or quality of work performed 4. Variance – scores generated must have differences between them, to compare 7. Use of Criteria for Validation a) Single vs. Multiple Criteria i. Use of a single composite measure sees global performance; interpretation easy ii. Job analysis studies identify multiple tasks within jobs; each can be measured; global scores may not reflect all activities b) When to Use Each i. For selection, use composite criterion ii. For research, use multiple scores iii. When using criteria for validation, Wayne Cascio offered a solution regarding when to use single and when to use multiple criteria. List the two distinctions he made: 1. using job performance measures to assist in managerial decision making. 2. using them to serve research purposes. c) Forming the Single Measure 10 Identify three common methods used to combine different measures into one: 1. Dollar Criterion – what is the value of worker performance to the organization? 2. Factor Analysis – a majority of the separate measures combined into one factor; factor analysis may weight some factors 3. Expert Judgment – must identify the weight of specific performance aspects
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