New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Cell Notes 1/11-1/15 (Lectures 1-3)

by: Mallory Notetaker

Cell Notes 1/11-1/15 (Lectures 1-3) BIOL 30603

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Biology > BIOL 30603 > Cell Notes 1 11 1 15 Lectures 1 3
Mallory Notetaker
GPA 3.528

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are notes from class but not only do they contain information from the slides but I have RELISTENED to these lectures and taken more notes to be sure that no details are missed. Bonus: There...
Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology
Dr. Akkaraju, Dr. Misamore, Dr. Chumley, Dr. McGillvray
Class Notes
Cell Biology, Biology
25 ?




Popular in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 30603 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Akkaraju, Dr. Misamore, Dr. Chumley, Dr. McGillvray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology in Biology at Texas Christian University.


Reviews for Cell Notes 1/11-1/15 (Lectures 1-3)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/28/16
1/11/16 What you know so far…. virus is non-living outside a cell, needs a cell to live -viruses are compact packages of DNA or RNA encased in protein Ancestral cell is 3.5-3.8 billion years ago -prokaryotes most closely resemble ancestral cell (no nucleus) the cell is the functional unit of all free-living organisms Prokaryotes can use inorganic materials (sulfer, CO2) to generate energy instead of only depending on oxygen. Prokaryotes are the most diverse group of organisms on the planet (more variety of species) -eukaryotes have a symbiotic relationship with prokaryotes to help us survive What is the consistency of the cytosol of the cell? -gel-like, snot -cytosol is the liquid part of the cytoplasm (area between nucleus and cellular membrane) -If things have to move they have to be transported across the membrane -organelles are fixed in space Nucleus has DNA, and it is distributed unevenly (nonuniform), some packed tightly some packed loosely -euchromatin: loosely packed -heterochromatin: tightly packed, permanently silenced -after replication the DNA condenses (so it is not chromatin) in the metaphase Endoplasmic Reticulum- helps in the transportation of proteins and in the processing of proteins, proteins get modified here Golgi Apparatus- protein motification and protein transport Plasma membrane- holds the cell together Plant- cell wall (helps resist osmotic change) What are the different types of organelles? Mitochondria function: generators of chemical energy for the cell, produce ATP, cell respiration nature of their membranes: they have two membranes, came from bacteria that were engulfed by a eukaryotic cell (created a symbiotic relationship between eukaryote and bacteria) Chloroplasts function: photosynthesis membranes: two membranes, also have internal stacks of membranes containing chlorophyll Endoplasmic Reticulum function: make materials that get exported, synthesis, modify, and transport proteins membranes: contain ribosomes (rough ER) that convert RNA into proteins, continuous with the membranes of the nucleus Golgi Apparatus function: modifies and packages molecules made in ER membranes: stacks of flattened membrane enclosed sacs Lysosomes function: break down food Peroxisomes function: breaks down fatty acids, etc and turns them into hydrogen peroxide then further breaks down that toxin The cytoskeleton: made up of… -microfilaments: made up of actin and myosin, thin threads that spread across cell to give it shape -Microtubules: larger than microfilaments, hollow tubes, help transport things across cell, important during cell division (pulls apart chromosomes during metaphase) and the separation of DNA Model Organisms: these things we discover in these organisms we can apply them in humans Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Yeast: has the same genes that work in eukaryotes Arabidopsis thaliana- helps study plants Drosophila melanogaster- flies Caenorhabditis elegans: sea elegans: helps unravel the development of eukaryotes -nematode, helped us understand apoptosis (a form of programmed cell death by which surplus cells are disposed of in all animals) -important in cancer research Mus Musculus- zebra mussels, good for studying vertebrates 1/13/16 Questions: protein-protein interactions are not covalent bonds covalent bonds are permanent and it takes energy to break it the resolving power of a microscope is limited by the wavelength of radiation used -the ability to see detail in the cell Electron microscope can see DNA and ribosome Organelle has both an outer and an inner membrane -mitochondrion -endosymbiosis: one little membrane organelle got swallowed by another Mitochondria -has own genome -able to duplicate -divide on a different time line from the rest of the cell -it cannot live outside the cell and the cell cannot live without the mitochondria so mitochondria and the cell are endosymbionts Bonds Strength: Covalent- takes energy to break, strong Noncovalent: ionic hydrogen bonds vanderwaals -Electrostatic bonds help proteins bind Water structure -cohesive nature of water gives its unusual properties -high surface tension -high specific heat -high heat of vaporization -it dissolves other polar molecules because it is polar -hydrophilic will dissolve in water, hydrophobic is opposite -ionic and polar molecules are hydrophilic, they dissolve -the hydrophobic (nonpolar) parts of proteins stay on the inside and are sheltered from the aqueous environment of the cell Sugars -Aldose: sugar with an aldehyde on it -Ketose: contains ketone group -know that a three carbon sugar is a triose, and know pentoses and hexoses -Glucose is a hexose aldose -know the monosaccharides chart really well, even the specific names Sugars can form ring structures, they switch back and forth from their straight chain to ring -know the numbering of the carbons on the ring formation slide -enzymes will look for certain orientations of functional groups on their substrates (sugars) -example: glucose is different from galactose -mannose is a sugar that used to tag proteins in the cell, called glycosylation -the order in which the sugars are added to the proteins, tells where to send the protein and this is specific because of their distinct properties -glycosidic bond is when sugars are linked together -glycosidic bond created by condensation, taking out water -as soon as they are linked, the beta and alpha form of the hydroxyl group is frozen -3 linked together, trisaccharide -chitin are sugars linked together and is very hard to break down -you can add other groups in place of hydroxyl groups on sugars -know and be able to name the substituted sugars -Oligosaccharides: a small number of repeating units -Polysaccharides: lots of repeating units -can be branched Lipids Long carbon chains, carboxyl group at one end and hydrocarbon tails off them Hydrophobic because non polar Fatty acid bonds have energy in them, the cell break them and use them to form ATP -fatty acids can also be bad for the cell so they are stored in the peroxisome and broken down there Very long chain fatty acids = VLCFA Double bond in the chain creates a kink= unsaturated unsaturated = good saturated (butter) = bad for you - because of the kinks of unsaturated fatty acids, they are more fluid and don’t stick to your arteries as well as fatty acids do -triglyceride: 3 fatty acids stuck on glycerol by ester linkages -when you go into the clinic they look at your levels of triglycerides (can be bad) Membranes are made up by lipids -phospholipids and glycolipids form self-sealing bilayers -Naturally occurring fatty acids interacted with water and formed the first bilayer trapped inside of it DNA making first life Phospholipids -3 carbon backbone and add a phosphate -one side is polar(phosphate) and the other is non polar (fatty acids) -one fatty acid is saturated and one is unsaturated (important) -The unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane make it more fluid and less rigid Steroids -long chain fatty acids folded back in on itself -storage of energy -need cholesterol in cell membranes to keep fluidity -testosterone- male sex hormone Amino Acids -Stucture: 4 things attached to an alpha C -amino group -carboxyl group -hydrogen -side chain (R) (20 side chains) -they are grouped according to whether their side chains are -basic -acidic -uncharged polar -nonpolar Basic: sucks up hydrogen (amine group), reducing acidity acidic: gives hydrogen into the system -anytime you see a charge on a molecule, it is polar Peptide Bonds -can form peptide bonds by linking the carboxyl group to the amino group of another -all peptide bonds in our body are the L form not D -Protein contain exclusively L-amino acids -peptide bonds are formed by condensation and are flexible because single bonds Nucleotides Pyrimidine- base in a hexagon shape Thymine Cytosine Uracil Purine - base in a almost naphthalene shape Adenine Guanine -they are phosphorylated and can attach up to 3 phosphates on them -phosphates add on the 5’ of the sugar -phosphates are connected by phosphodiester bonds -Base adds on the 1’ of the sugar -2 types of sugars (pentoses) are used in nucleotides -Beta-D-ribose -in RNA -Beta-D-2-deoxyribose -in DNA 1/15/16 The nature of the amino acids determines how the protein will fold phosphates are bonded by phosphodiester bonds shorter chains of the nucleotides are oligotides base is attached to carbon number one and phosphate is on carbon number 5 a covalent bond between two atoms is formed as a result of the sharing of electrons Cells need ribose to build nucleotides Weak non covalent chemical bonds -two proteins come together and have a high affinity to each other -things in the cell are constantly moving and can randomly find a substrate and act on it Vander walls attractions -at short distances, any two atoms show a weak bonding interaction due to their fluctuating electrical charges Hydrogen Bonding: -when an H is between two electron-rich atoms (oxygen) -strongest when the 3 atoms are in a line - is important in holding proteins together and forming shape electrostatic attractions: between two charged atoms -water breaks up electrostatic interactions, dissolving the compound If two things have a high affinity for each other the rate of dissociation will be low hydrophobic interactions -two drops of oil in water, they want to come together to reduce the amount of surface area that is touching the water -no charge but come together Reactions in the cell are broken down into smaller steps because it is easier to move something uphill one step at a time Catabolic pathway: break down; release energy through oxidative pathways anabolic pathways: build up The second law of thermodynamics: universal tendency of things to become disordered -The disorder in the universe can only increase -increasing overall entropy of the universe Reactions that tend to increase order will require energy, the universe naturally slides to non order energetically unfavorable reactions can occur only if it is coupled to a second energetically favorable reaction -negative delta G coming from the synthesis of ATP is coupled with the positive delta G of the synthesis of sugar on test will give a reaction and give the free energy of the components and you need to come to a conclusion about whether it will happen G products - G reactants = delta G


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.