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BSC242 week of 1/25

by: Alexandra

BSC242 week of 1/25 BSC 242

GPA 4.01

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Ch 5
Microbiology and Man
Daryl W. Lam
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 242 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daryl W. Lam in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Microbiology and Man in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Microbial Metabolism 01/28/2016 ▯ Metabolism  Sum of chem reactions in an organism ▯ Catabolism  Breakdown molecules to generate ATP ▯ Anabolism  Use ATP to build molecules ▯ Microbial Metabolism  Catabolism provides building blocks and energy for anabolism  Metabolic pathway o Sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chem reactions in cell o Enzymes  Determine metabolic pathways  (proteins) are encoded by genes (DNA) o DNA  mRNA  proteins ▯ Collision theory  Chem reactions can occur when atoms, ions, and molecules collide ▯ Activation energy  Needed to disrupt electronic configurations so a reaction can occur ▯ Reaction rate  Frequency of collisions with enough energy  Can be increased by o Enzymes o Increasing temp or pressure  Heat= faster  Cold= slower  Higher pressure: harder, faster  Lower pressure: less ▯ Enzymes ▯  Decrease activation energy needed for reaction to occur  Speed up chem reactions by putting reactants closer together and in a proper orientation o Effectively increases collision frequency  Biological catalysts o Specific for a chem reaction o Not used up in that reaction  “___ase” (see table 5.1 pg 113)  Parts o Apoenzyme protein portion o Cofactor nonprotein component  Fe, Mg, Ca, Zn o Coenzyme organic cofactor  NAD, FAD  Important coenzymes  NADH, NAD+  NADPH, NADP+  FADH2, FAD  Coenzyme A o Holoenzyme apoenzyme + cofactor (coenzyme)  Substrates bind in active site of enzyme  Turnover number generally 1-10,000 molecules/sec  Formula o E+S [ES] [EP] E+P  E=enzyme  S=substrate  P=product  Classification o Oxidoreductase  Oxidation-reduction reactions o Transferase  Transfer functional groups (amino, acetyl, phosphate group) o Hydrolase  Hydrolysis o Lyase  Removal of atoms without hydrolysis o Isomerase  Rearrangement of atoms o Ligase  Joining of molecules  Uses ATP  Factors influencing Enzyme Activity o Denatured by  Temp  pH  substrate conc  competitive inhibition  binds to active site blocking substrate  noncompetitive inhibition  binds to allosteric site  alters active site blocking substrate  feedback inhibition  allosteric regulation ▯ Oxidation-Reduction  oxidation o removal of electrons o OIL= oxidation is loss  Reduction o Gain of electrons o RIG= reduction is gain  Redox reaction o Oxidation reaction paired with reduction reaction  Biological oxidations o Often dehydrogenations ▯ Generation of ATP  ATP generated by phosphorylation of ADP o ADP (adenosine-P~P)+ Energy+ P  ATP (adenosine-P~P~P)  Methods o Substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP)  Transfer of high-energy PO4- directly to ADP  C-C-C ~ P + ADP  C-C-C + ATP o Oxidative phosphorylation (OP)  Energy released from the transfer of electrons (oxidation) of 1 compound to another (reduction) is used to generate ATP by chemiosmosis o Photophosphorylation  Plants, algae, cyanobacteria  Light causes chlorophyll to give up electrons  Energy released from transfer of electrons (oxidation) of chlorophyll through a system of carrier molecules is used to generate ATP  Structure ▯ Carbohydrate Catabolism  Glucose has electrons that can be removed (by oxidations) and carried (by coenzymes) to system that stores energy in ATP  Breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy involves o Glycolysis  Oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid produces ATP and NADH  Occurs in most living cells  Glucose: aerobic or anaerobic Costs: 2 ATP Products: 4 ATP (so net gain of 2 ATP), 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate  Stages  Prep Stage Used: 2 ATPs Product: 2 GPs  Glucose is split to form 2 GPs (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate)  Energy-Conserving Stage Used: 2 GPs Products: 2 pyruvic acid, 4 ATP, 2 NADH  2 GPs (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate) oxidized to 2 pyruvic acid  Reactions of Glycolysis (10 reactions)  Hexokinase: adds a phosphate to glucose  glucose-6-phosphate  Phosphoglucoisomerase: changes shape of glucose-6-phosphate  fructose-6-phosphate  Phosphofructokinase: adds phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate  fructose-1,6-diphosphate  Adolase (split step): cuts fructose-1,6- diphosphate in half  2 smaller pieces (not identical) both with 1 phosphate attached (GAP and DHAP)  Triose phosphate isomerase (conversion/ doubling step): changes shape of DHAP to be identical GAP  Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (oxidation step): removes hydrogen from GAP and adds it to NAD+  NADH and adds phosphate (from cytosol) to GAP  1,3-biphosphoglycerate  Phosphoglycerokinase (debt settling step): transfers a phosphate from 1,3 biphosphoglycerate to ADP  ATP  Phosphoglyceromutase (shuffle step): shifts phosphate from end of 3-phosphoglycerate to middle on 2 nd carbon  2-phosphoglycerate  Enolase: removes molecule of water from 2- phosphoglycerate  Pyruvate kinase (payday step): transfers phosphate from PEP to ADP  ATP o Pyruvate Oxidation (intermediate step)  Joins glycolysis with Kreb’s (CAC) o Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)  Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix  Decomposes a derivative of pyruvate (Acetyl CoA) to CO2  Donates electrons to electron transport chain  A small amount of ATP is generated by substrate-level phosphorylation  Details  Takes 2 turns of cycle to fully oxidize the original glucose molecule that entered the cycle as 2 molecules of acetyl CoA  2 different electron carriers  NAD and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)  CAC yields  Electrons that will be transported to the electron transport chain  2 ATP – produced via substrate level phosphorylation o Electron transport chain  Chemiosmosis Cells harvest energy through cellular respiration ≈ 36 ATP C6H 12+66O  62O + 6H O2+ ener2y  A series of carrier molecules that are oxidized and reduced as electrons are passed down the chain  Energy released can be used to produce ATP by chemiosmosis ▯ Pyruvate fate  Oxygen NOT present = ANAEROBIC o Pyruvate is converted into  Lactic acid, ethanol, mixed acids, 2,3 butanediol, propionic acid, acetone-butanol Via fermentation  Oxygen present = AEROBIC o Pyruvate is converted to Acetyl CoA o Via  Pyruvate Oxidation in Mitochondria of eukaryotes or cytosol of prokaryotes: Kreb’s Cycle (CO2) and Electron Transport (H2O) ▯ Fermentation  Anaerobic o If anaerobic most organisms cannot oxidize pyruvate further  Simpler, faster alternative to cellular respiration  Oxidize glucose w/o oxygen and w/o complex organelles o In order to keep oxidizing glucose, must reoxidize NADH + H+  Catabolic pathway that breaks down glucose for “little” ATP  Takes place in cytoplasm  Set of reactions occur in 2 stages o Glycolysis: glucose  2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 H2O o Waste product formation (retain potential energy): fates of pyruvate  2 types of fermentation o Lactic acid fermentation: lactic acid is end product o Alcohol fermentation: ethanol and CO2 are end products Electrons end up in fermentation end products, no energy obtained Carbon from glucose ends up in fermentation end products, still energy present since not completely oxidized  Necessary for: regeneration of NAD+ for glycolysis ▯ Pyruvate oxidation and CAC overview  Carbons in pyruvate (product of glycolysis) are oxidized to CO2  Reduced NADHs and FADH2 are produced at several steps  ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation ▯ Respiration  Aerobic o Final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecule oxygen (O2)  Anaerobic o Final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2 o Yields less energy than aerobic respiration because only part of the Krebs cycles operates under anaerobic conditions Electron acceptor Products NO - NO -, N + H O 3 2 2 2 SO -4 H 2 +H O2 CO -32 CH 4 H O 2 ▯ ▯ Important info Pathway Eukaryote Prokaryote Glycolysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Intermediate step Mitochondrial Matrix** Cytoplasm Krebs cycle Mitochondrial Matrix Cytoplasm Electron Transport Mitochondrial inner Plasma Membrane membrane (Cristae) ▯  ATP produced from complete oxidation of 1 glucose using aerobic respiration  36 ATPs are produced in eukaryotes and 38 in most prokaryotes ▯ ▯ ▯


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