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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by 921650391 on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HRMN 5540 at Auburn University taught by Peter Harms in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see HR Selection and Placement in Business, management at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 3: Job Analysis in Human Resource Selection Study Guide/Assignment 1. Job analysis: A definition and role in HR selection a) Job analysis is a purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important workrelated aspects of a job. b) Four important workrelated aspects are: 1. Work activities, that is, what a worker does; how, why, and when these activities are conducted 2. Tools and equipment used in performing work activities 3. Context of the work environment, such as work schedule or physical working conditions 4. Requirement of personnel performing the job, such as knowledge, skills, abilities, personality characteristics, or other specifications c) Job analysis data help to: 1. identify employee specifications or WRCs necessary for success on a job 2. select or develop selection procedures that assess these important applicant WRCs to forecast those job candidates likely to succeed 3. develop criteria or standards of job performance that represent employee job success d) Job analysis method i. Systematic process for Collecting Information on WorkRelated Aspects of a job ii. (Job analysis method produces) WorkRelated Information 1. job tasks 2. duties 3. work behaviors 4. critical incidents, etc. iii. (Translated into Employee Specifications – Inferential Leap 1) WorkRelated Characteristics (WRC) Measures 1. knowledge 2. skills 3. abilities 4. personality traits 5. physical requirements 6. licenses / certifications 7. tools / equipment possessed iv. (Translated into Predictors – 2) Selection Procedures 1. tests 2. employment 3. interviews 4. application blank, etc v. (WorkRelated Information Translated into Criteria Measures 3) Employee Performance Measure 1. performance evaluations 2. productivity 3. job tenure 4. counter productive work behavior (CWBs) a. E.g. absenteeism, tardiness, incivility at work vi. (4) – are the predicators – job selection procedures (tests, employment, interviews, application blanks, etc.) – valid? 1. Are the predicators job related? vii. (4) – are the criteria measures – performance evaluations, productivity, job tenure, CWBs – valid? 1. Are the criteria measures job related? e) Summary i. Step 1 – gathers information on critical job tasks, duties, work behaviors performed, including WRCs ii. Step 2 – gathers job information related to what represents successful work performance or success (our criteria) iii. Step 3 – identification of critical job tasks and information on what represents successful work performance help produce two products that underpin a selection program: 1. Criteria measures – what we are interested in measuring in predicting applicants’ future work behavior 2. Selection procedures or predictors reflect the WRCs needed for job success and are used in making predictions regarding future work performance (our criteria) iv. Scores on predictors serve as employment decisionmaking tools v. Development of predictors usually requires some intermediate steps: 1. Example: job task information helps identify employee specifications (WRCs) needed to perform critical job tasks. 2. Once WRCs are known, it is possible to develop or purchase predicators of these employee requirements 3. Jobrelated predicators serve as job applicant screening tools f) Growth in job analysis i. Over the course of the past four decades, employers have given considerable attention to job analysis for the following three reasons: 1. Jobs are not static entities; the nature of the job changes with technology, seasons, etc. 2. Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures have had a significant effect 3. Professional standards have also emphasized the important role of job analysis in HR Selection Programs 4. Also, as a fourth item, court cases involving employment discrimination in selection have underlined importance of job analysis. g) Legal issues in job analysis i. Title VII, 1964 Civil Rights Act, prohibits discrimination in employment because of race, sex, color, religion or national origin ii. Key Court Cases re job analysis: 1. Griggs v. Duke Power Co: U. S. Supreme Court ruled that selection standards must be jobrelated. a. Selection standards used without meaningful study of their relationship to jobperformance ability 2. Albermarle Paper Co. v. Moody,: U.S. Supreme Court criticized the lack of job analysis in a validation study. iii. Thompson review of court cases found: 1. Job analysis is mandatory and must be for the job for which selection procedures are used 2. Analysis of the job should be in writing 3. Job analysts should describe in detail the job analysis procedures used 4. Knowledgeable job analysts should collect job data from a variety of current sources 5. Sample size of individuals serving as subject matter experts (SMEs) should be large and representative of the jobs for which the selection procedures are used 6. Tasks, duties and activities should be included 7. The most important tasks should be represented in the selection procedures 8. Competency levels of work performance for entrylevel jobs should be specified 9. WRCs including knowledge, skills, and abilities should be specified, particularly if a content validation strategy is used iv. Federal Guidelines on Employee Selection 1. Uniform Guidelines agreed to by EEOC, Dept. of Justice, Dept. of Labor, Civil Service Commission 2. Many recent cases alleging discriminatory impact because of inferences made during human judgment of job analysis data h) Collecting job information i. The role of job analysis in HR selection is to: 1. The role of job analysis in HR selection is to identify the requisite WRCs, and 2. translate them into tests, interviews, etc. ii. The process requires judgments of inferences at several points 1. Data used to infer employee specifications 2. Content of selection procedures that reflect identified specifications 3. A survey of job analysis methods a) List four job analysis methods in frequent use now: 1. Job analysis interviews 2. Job analysis questionnaires (including task analysis inventories) 3. Critical Incidents Technique 4. SME or job expert workshops 4. Job analysis interviews a) Description 1. Interview is a frequently used method of job analysis, meeting many purposes 2. Consists of trained analyst asking questions about duties and responsibilities, WRCs required, and conditions of employment 3. Typically involves group or individual interviews with incumbents and supervisors (SMEs – subject matter experts – because of their familiarity with the jobs) b) The reasons a job analysis interview is typically performed: 1. To collect job information that will serve as the basis for developing other measures, such as a questionnaire 2. To clarify or verify information collected previously through other methods 3. To provide a method, preferably as one of several used, for collecting relevant job data for developing a selection system c) Consideration on Applicability 1. The interview is applicable to a variety of jobs, including those primarily physical or primarily meatal 2. An effective interview requires that it be planned in detail a) State the objectives of the interview b) Individual to be interviewed c) Questions and means for recording answers d) Who will conduct interviews 3. List four critical tasks the job analysis interview should identify: a) What the worker does, by using a specific action verb that introduces the task statement b) To whom or what he or she does it, by stating the object of the verb c) What is produced, by expressing the expected output of the action d) What materials, tools, procedures, or equipment are used 4. Use description to write task statements d) Limitations of the job analysis interview 1. A lack of standardization 2. Limited possibilities to interview large numbers of respondents 3. Time & labor intensive; not cost efficient 4. Legal requirements may be unmet 5. Interviewer may have to track through entire job in specific detail; requires skill 6. Information may be distorted 5. Job analysis questionnaires a) Description 1. questionnaire is distributed to respondents in person, by mail or email, or link to a website 2. it lists activities or tasks, tools and equipment used to perform the job, working conditions and WRCs incumbents must possess 3. participants make some form of judgment about that information, often with a rating 4. questionnaires may be tailored or prefabricated b) The Task Analysis Inventory 1. a survey that lists tasks on which respondents make some form of judgment 2. ratings may include a task rating scale, such as frequency of task performance 3. usually concerns only one job 4. completed by job incumbents i. supervisors may do so if they have current knowledge about the job 5. historically, widely used in military settings c) The nature of task inventories 1. A task inventory often contains 3 major types of information: i. Background information on respondents 1. Demographic information helpful for legal questions ii. Listing of job tasks with rating scales iii. Other or miscellaneous information iv. Information on respondents and the employing organization d) Advantages of Task Analysistype Job Analysis Questionnaires. 1. task inventories are an efficient means of collecting data from large numbers, even if geographically dispersed 2. lead to quantifying job analysis data, most valuable in determining core requirements e) Disadvantages of Task Analysistype Job Analysis Questionnaires. 1. costly, timeconsuming; motivation may lag 2. respondents must be representative of workforce, or cannot generalize 6. Critical incident technique a) Description 1. Requires development of behavioral statements developed by supervisors and other SMEs 2. Based on direct observation or memory, describing incidents of good and poor work behaviors i. Statements describe behaviors that distinguish successful from unsuccessful work performance 3. These components of the job are a basis for developing descriptive information about a job b) Remember 1. Gathers information about behaviors that have actually been observed 2. Does not rely on judgmental or traitoriented descriptions of performance c) Application of critical incidents 1. The technique serves a variety of selection purposes 2. Implementing the method requires: i. Selection the method for critical incidents collection 1. Group setting 2. Individual interviews 3. Questionnaires ii. Selecting panel of job experts 1. Those who had opportunity to observe – usually in job 4 to 5 years 2. Job incumbents 3. Supervisors iii. Gathering critical incidents 1. Illustrates unusually effective or ineffective performance 2. 4 characteristics of wellwritten critical incident: a) Is specific – a single behavior b) Focuses on observable behaviors that have been, or could be, exhibited on the job c) Describes briefly the context in which behavior occurred d) Indicates consequences of the behavior iv. Rating and classifying critical incidents into job dimensions 1. Typically made by SMEs 2. Goal is to identify those behaviors most relevant in differentiating among behaviors lead to job success or failure v. Advantages of the Critical Incidents Technique. 1. information elicited is behavioral, not trait based 2. information is “critical,” so represents important aspects of the job vi. Disadvantages of the Critical Incidents Technique. 1. incident don’t represent the full job 2. process is labor intensive, and results often situation specific 3. doubtful that the information is transferable from one situation to another vii. Integrating a task analysis inventory 1. to develop an interview integrating a task analysis inventory and critical incident: a) Identify important job tasks b) Identify important WRCs c) Show critical job task and WRC info to SMEs d) Rewrite the critical incident into a selection interview question e) Develop a key for scoring responses to the interview question viii. SME Workshops 1. Consist of groups or panels of 10 – 20 job incumbents who work with a group leader to produce a job analysis: a) Select and prepare SMEs b) Identify and rate job tasks c) Identify and rate WRCs d) Judge selection measure, job content relevance i. Ratings from this step help to establish content validity of selection procedures 7. Incorporating job analysis results in selection procedures: a cookbook a) How do we take the information collected and develop or choose selection procedures? 1. Job analysis results determine the relevant WRCs needed for effective performance 2. These WRCs serve as the basis for constructing or choosing needed selection procedures 8. Identifying employee WRCs a) Employers use direct and indirect methods in identifying employee WRCs. Identify which of the following represents each of these two methods: 1. Indirect: use specific steps to break down large inferential leaps involved in deriving critical WRCs from job tasks 2. Direct: require larger inferential leaps because SMEs simply rate the importance of WRCs listed on a survey for an entire job, not each individual task b) WRCs are useful only if accurate, complete c) Determining steps specify WRCs: 1. Identifying job tasks and work behaviors 2. Rating importance of job tasks & work behaviors 3. Specifying WRCs necessary for successful job performance 4. Rating importance of identified WRCs 5. Linking important WRCs to important job tasks and work behaviors 6. Developing content areas of selection procedures … a selection plan d) Determining relative importance WRCs 1. Some WRCs more important than others for job success; to determine which a) SMEs might complete a survey b) A questionnaire might list essential WRCs previously identified; respondents assign a relative importance weight from 0 to 100 c) Simple multiple our WRCs’ importance ratings by the task importance ratings for those tasks. e) Choosing selection procedures to assess employee WRCs 1. An HR decisionmaker choosing a selection measure should ask these types of questions: a) Have job applicants demonstrated past behaviors or had experiences before taking the job that are associated with successful performance of the tasks of the job? b) Can job applicants be observed performing the job or part of it? i. Is there a means for simulating the job in a test situation that is likely to require important behaviors as defined by the job? ii. If so, is there a practical way of measuring simulated work performance? c) Would a written test be best for examining worker requirements in terms of eliciting desired reactions and providing practical scoring? d) Would giving job applicants an opportunity to express themselves orally through an interview cover job requirement that might go unassessed using other means? e) Can the assessment method produce reliable and valid data for evaluating job applicants’ possession of a WRC? f) Is it practical and within our resources to use a particular method for measuring a WRC? f) An example selection plan for the job of HR selection analyst 1. When developing employee specifications, research seems to suggest that a) a structured, systematic approach should be used to reduce the size of inferential leaps. b) Incumbents can reliably and validly rate the specifications for their position when the specs deal with specific, observable job descriptors c) Ratings of more abstract traits are improved when raters are properly trained using methods such as frameofreference training 9. Employee specs for job about to change or yet to be created a) The methods consist of: i. An analysis of the job is made to identify current tasks and WRCs ii. SMEs (job incumbents, supervisors, managers) are assembled in a workshop to discuss how future issues (technological change)are likely to affect the job iii. Information on expected future tasks and WRCs is collected from those knowledgeable about these expected job changes iv. Differences between present and future judgments about the job are identified to isolate those tasks and WRCs for which the greatest change is anticipated. 1. This task and WRC information serves as the basis for selecting incumbents in a job that does not currently exist
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