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General Psychology

by: Amanda Wisenbaker

General Psychology PSY 2003

Amanda Wisenbaker
Arkansas Tech University
GPA 3.6
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About this Document

These are the notes from week three of Dr. Shrira General Psychology class.
General Psychology
Shrira, Ilan
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Wisenbaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Shrira, Ilan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Arkansas Tech University.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Psychology chapter 3 sensation and perception  Sensation vs perception o Bottom up processing (sensation)  Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information  Just focusing on what it looks like with any meaning o Top down processing (perception)  Information processing draws on our experience and expectation  Being able to read something even if the words are messed up  Sensation – threshold o Absolute threshold  Minimum intensity needed to detect a particular stimulus greater than 50 % of the time  Hearing test, what is the minimum sound you can hear  Also can be used with sight, how dim can a room be where you can still see o Difference threshold  How much does it take to tell the difference between two thing  Sometimes classed the just noticeable difference (JND) o Individual differences in thresholds  Everyone is born with a different threshold on what they can see, hear, smell, and taste  What we are sensitive to helps us later in life with jobs by being able to detect the small differences  Sensory adaptation o Reduced sensitivity due to constant stimulation o Our body's get use to the constant stimulation ( sitting, light changes, temperature) o Helps us focus by reducing background chatter  Helps us notice changes o Probably applies to all senses, including vision  But then staring at something should eventually lead to no signals about it to the brain  If this was true then when we stared at something it should go away, the reason this doesn't work is because our vision never stares at one thing for very long. Our eyes are not staying completely still on the same thing  Eye anatomy o Pupil- the opening in the center of the ye o Iris- the colored portion of the eye around the pupil o Retina- back of the eye with receptors o Optic nerve- send the information to the brain o Blind spot-everyone has one. There is always one spot where we can't see but it is filled by the other eye  Bigger blind spot o Top down processing restricts our attention o When we are looking at something , like the teachers and PowerPoint, we don't take in our surrounding or the small details o Inattention blindness- failing to detect thing in environment that we should notice o We are only aware of a small part of our surrounding o Change blindness- failing to detect large changes in our environment  Depth perception o How we judge the space around us o Judging distances o When do we develop depth perception  The visual cliff  They put a child in a playpen. It's made of clear glass with tiles underneath. The one half looks like it has a drop. They point of this is to see if the child is afraid of the cliff. If the child has depth perception the cliff 2 should scare them . They found that when children first start crawling they aren't afraid of the cliff, but a month later they can become afraid of the cliff.  Children start learning depth perception after they start crawling o Binocular cues to depth  Convergence  Two eyes move inward for nearer objects  How much our eyes converge tells us how far away things are  It is a muscular cues  Retinal disparity  Images from the two eyes differ  Closer the object, the larger the disparity  It's who we perceive a 3-D movies o Monocular cues to depth  Interposition  Closer objects block the distant object  Relative size  Smaller image is more distant  Relative clarity  Hazy objects perceived as more distant  Linear perspective  Parallel lines converge with distance  Perceptual constancy o It is perceiving objects as unchanging despite changes in image on your eye  Shape  Our brain tell us the object has not changed it is just moving  Size 3  When something is far away it looks smaller but it is big up close.  Color/light  Our brain makes corrections for shadows. Our brain corrects this to make it lighter 4


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