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Lecture 2

by: Kelly Wetmore

Lecture 2 Bio 242

Kelly Wetmore

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Tissues and Chemistry Review
Intro Human Physiology
Barbara Van Sciver
Class Notes
Physiology, URI, BIO242, Human Physiology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Wetmore on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 242 at University of Rhode Island taught by Barbara Van Sciver in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.

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Date Created: 01/28/16
Sunday, May 22, y Lecture 2 4 Primary Tissue Types: 1. Connective Tissue • Binds, anchors, supports other tissues • Extensive amount of extracellularmatrix (ECM) • Protein fibers outside of cells ­ Collagen­ strength in tissues ­ Elastin­gives the tissue the ability to stretch and recoil • Bones, blood, tendons, cartilage, adipose tissue 2. Nervous Tissue • CNS (central nervous system)­ spinal cord • PNS (peripheral nervous system)­ outside of the spine • Glial cells (Glia)­ support other types of cells in the nervous system­ Neurons • Neurons­ transmit electrical impulses • Process of electrical impulse through neuron: ­ Cell body (nucleus and organelles) ­>Dendrites­> Axon ­> Axon terminal ­>  Neurotransmitters • ­> Synapse­ the space between another neuron OR • ­> Muscle cell­ muscle contraction occurs OR • ­> Gland­ secretion of gland 1 Sunday, May 22, y • Neurons usually don’t reproduce 3. Muscle Tissue • Contration • Generation of force • Muscle cells ­ Skeletal­ muscle fiber • multiple nuclei • striated muscle • moves the bone ­ Smooth­ controls movement through hollow tubes of organs • one nucleus • not a striated muscle  ­ Cardiac­ found in the heart • one nucleus • striated muscle • short and branched *Note: Powerpoint diagrams may be included on exams* 4. Epithelial Tissue • Line hollow tubes and organs • Barrier • Lumen­ hollow part of tube • Lumen ­> blood­ has to go through epithelial cells 2 Sunday, May 22, y • Exocrine­ sweat glands ­ Secrete via ducts to external environment • Endocrine­ hormone glands ­ Secrete directly into the blood Homeostasis • Maintenance of a dynamic, steady state of the internal environment (inside bodies,  but outside of cells) ­ ex: glucose levels associated with normal eating patterns ­ ex: pH of blood needs to be between 7.35 and 7.45 • below­ acidosis • above­ alkalosis  Negative Feedback Systems • A response to a change in a controlled variable in it’s opposition to the change (it  goes in the opposite direction) ­ ex: Body temp • lower body temp (controlled variable) ­> shiver ­> increased body temp ­ ex: Blood pressure • low blood pressure ­> mechanisms in the body change ­> increased blood  pressure Chemistry Review • Solution ­ Solvent­ a mixture of liquid 3 Sunday, May 22, y ­ Solute­ dissolves in liquid • Matter­ anything that has mass and occupies space • Mass­ matter • Weight­ effect of gravity on mass • The Atom ­ Proton and Neutrons­ in the nucleus ­ Electrons­ around the nucleus ­ Humans are primarily made of elements­ C, H, O, N ­ Humans essential elements­ K, Na, Mg, Ca • Chemical Bonding ­ Formation of molecules­ atom + atom ­ Orbitals­ 2 electrons ­ Shells­ made of several orbitals ­ Valence shell­ outer most shell • 1st shell­ 2 electrons 4 Sunday, May 22, y • 2nd shell­ 8 electrons • 3rd shell­ 8 electrons 5


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