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Chapter One

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by: Chandler Massengale

Chapter One PSYC 223

Chandler Massengale
C of C
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Introduction to Social Psychology Directly for Myers, D.G. (2013) Social Psychology (11th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill
Social Psychology
Dr. Lisa Ross
Class Notes
Psychology, social psychology
25 ?




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"If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!"

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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Massengale on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 223 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Lisa Ross in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
January 14, 2016 Chapter 1  What is Social Psychology? o Definition o “The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one  another.”    ~ David G. Myers o “The Bridge”  Historical Overview o Philosophy  Aristotle: circa 300 BCE  Philosophical empiricism (tabula rasa)  Karl Marx: mid­1800s   React to thesis with antithesis  Gustave LeBon: late 1800’s  Psychologie des Foules o Sociology  Emile Durkheim: late 1800’s  Anomie (alienation)  Affluence/materialism disconnect us from our spiritual selves >  contributes to suicide  Fromm o Alienation from ourselves, each other, nature o Have to form meaningful connections  Charles Cooley:1902  “looking glass self”  George Mead: 1934  Symbolic interactionism = empathy, taking the role of the “other” o Social Psychology  First experiment (Triplett, 1897)  Riding bikes in the presence of other people makes people ride  faster  1  textbook (1908)  1  journal (1920s)  WWII  Women having paid jobs > change in behavior because of the war  Jewish discrimination  Testing military recruits  Wicker (1969)  “The Crisis” paper  Before this social psychologists were mainly interested in attitudes   He said that attitudes only overlap with behaviors 9% of the time  Cognitive revolution (1980’s)  We still don’t have one good theory to determine what causes social  behavior  Issues & Creative Tensions in the Field o Background/Training  Sociologically and Psychologically trained Social Psychologists both use  qualitative data  Sociologically typically only use qualitative data  Psychologically mostly use quantitative data  o Work setting/Type of Research/Role  Basic researchers conduct experiments for the sake of knowledge  Applied researchers conduct experiments trying to find certain outcomes   Tend to work for companies  Role tends to be a want to do better in the world   Main Themes o We construct social reality  The same event can be interpreted in different ways o Intuitions are powerful & perilous  We rely and trust our intuitions, but they aren’t always right o Behavior is influenced by and influences  social/situational factors  DON’T UNDERESTIMATE THE POWER OF THE  SITUATION  You can’t anticipate how you’ll react in a situation  personal attitudes  biology and evolution  Charles Darwin and natural selection o Social psych relates to many disciplines o Social psych applies to everyday life  Review of the Scientific Method o Components  Theories  Should explain previous findings and help make predictions  Hypotheses  Observation and Replication  Critical thinking  Evaluate evidence and conclusions  Examine assumptions  Uncover hidden values  Skepticism and humility o Process   Theories > hypothesis > research and observation > replication  Aims of Research & Types of Studies o Description: surveys  or observations  Observations can be overt or covert o Prediction:  surveys or observations o Explanation:  experiments  Ex. You hear there is a relationship between depression and self­esteem  and you want to test it.  Correlation doesn’t equal causation.  Requirements  Randomly assign people to groups  Manipulate the independent variable  Measure the dependent variable  Settings  Lab experiments and field experiments  o Natural settings vs. you having control of their settings  Realism  Mundane o Research setting resembles the real world   Experimental o Participants take it seriously and actively participating o More important than mundane realism  Values in research o prescriptive bias  By describing something perceive that description as being prescriptive  Prescriptive = “should” o career/major/topic selection  Think about a paper where you have had a choice to pick a topic  Social scientists lean to the left politically  Tolerance of ambiguity (can people really change; it depends on the  circumstance) o label selection  Words that we choose show our values about a situation  “Fornicators” vs. “lovers” vs. “cohabitators”  Have to be label neutral  o  the “isms”  Heterosexism  Sexism  Ageism   Racism  Pronatalism  Can also have to do with people who can’t have kids  Ethnocentrism  Our country does things better than your country  Human Research:  Ethical Guidelines  o  Components  Informed consent    You know what you are getting into  Voluntary, not coerced   CofC won’t let psychology professors recruit from their own  classes for surveys  Don’t subjectify vulnerable populations  Protection from harm/discomfort  Debriefing  Let participants know what the study was really about (summary of results, hypothesis)  Have to get to everyone  Give resources to participants (follow­up information that will  make their lives better), thank them for their time  People should have a chance to ask questions  Minimize & justify deception  Confidentiality o  Process:  Institutional Review Board   Every campus that receives federal money has one of these  Guidelines for research with humans is less than those with animals


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