SOC 2010 Chapter 2
SOC 2010 Chapter 2 Soc 2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by kyle.gosland on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 2010 at Clemson University taught by Mary Barr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Introduction to sociology in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 2 Notes Paradigm Shift: a change in the way people think about some aspect of life Scientific Method: Question Literature Review Form Hypothesis Define Variables Choose research design or method Collect data Analyze data Form conclusions Scientific Method can be limited because correlation doesn’t always mean causation Correlation: variables appear to change together; directly or inversely related Causation: a change in one variable causes the other to change Although the variables may appear to influence each other, this is not necessarily true because there could be a different underlying factor causing these changes Intervening variable (or lurking variable) causes change that could be incorrectly blamed on the independent variable Spurious Correlation: appearance of causation produced by an intervening variable Rapport: positive relationship characterized by mutual trust or sympathy Reflexivity: how a researcher’s presence influences the results of a study Likert Scale: scale along a continuum (strongly disagreestrongly agree) Value-Free Sociology: keeping personal beliefs out of research and studies Applied Research: using knowledge gained and applying it to cause change Reactivity: the ways people and events respond to being studied Hawthorne Effect: desired effect is the result of the research itself, not the independent variable Qualitative Methods Text Interviews Participant Observation Field Notes Ethnography: studying people in their own environment Research Ethics Must have informed consent from participants Pseudonyms: change names to protect identities ASA Code of Ethics Professional Competence Integrity Professional and Scientific Responsibility Respect for other peoples’ rights, dignity, and diversity Social Responsibility Major ethics violations: Nuremberg Trials and Tuskegee Syphilis Literature Reviews help sociologists to acquire background knowledge before they begin a study so they know more about the topic and to avoid duplicating previous work Pros and Cons of Ethnography Pros: Able to study groups that aren’t easily studied by other methods Can help change previous opinions about a group of people Can help to diminish stereotypes by providing accurate and personal information Cons: Difficult to replicate results in repeated trials; groups behave differently especially under different circumstances Group being studied may not do a proper job representing entire population of the group Bias can easily become a part of the study because a personal connection is formed in the process of conducting the study Interview Pros and Cons Pros: Respondents can speak their minds, especially with open ended questions Respondents can bring to light issues that could have been overlooked by someone who doesn’t share the same experiences Cons: Respondents may be unwilling to talk or cooperate Respondents may not respond accurately and instead tell the interviewer what they want to hear Conclusions drawn form the process may not be applicable to he entire population Survey Pros and Cons Pros: Good for gathering data on a large population Fairly quick and provides large amounts of data on a population Large sample size tends to give fairly reliable results Respondents usually know their answers will remain anonymous Cons: May not allow for a full range of choices to a question Respondents may be dishonest in their answers Response bias and distribution bias can skew results Can be used to support opinions instead of scientific discoveries Comparative and Historical methods use sources that already exist to study relationships in different places or at different times Content Analysis: studying individual parts of something in order to make conclusions about it overall Sociologists must remain impartial when using the scientific method to ensure accurate results (objectivity) Institutional Review Boards: group of people within an organization who review and approve of the practices going on within the organization
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