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The Social Self, Chapter 2

by: Chandler Massengale

The Social Self, Chapter 2 PSYC 223

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Psychlogy > PSYC 223 > The Social Self Chapter 2
Chandler Massengale
C of C
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

The Social Self
Social Psychology
Dr. Lisa Ross
Class Notes
Psychology, social psychology, social, self
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Massengale on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 223 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Lisa Ross in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
January 19, 2016 Chapter 2: The Social Self  Introduction o A Historical Note  Cooley: looking glass self (what people think of you is more important than what I think about myself) o The Importance of the self  Presumed  Spotlight effect: overestimate how much everyone is talking about them, thinking about them, looking at them, etc.  detect our inner emotions when we overestimate how well people can  o Happens in couples counseling  Actual  Self­referent effect: applying the material to our life which helps us  remember material better  Western (individualistic) cultures pay a lot of attention to the “self”  Erikson: identity is important during adolescence  o Accuracy of our self­concepts  Misjudgments  Types o Duration of our future moods o Prediction of ur future behaviors  Illusion of Invulnerability o Estimating how long future tasks will take  Planning fallacy o How long our relationships will last  Dual attitude system (Myers) o Implicit: unconscious  o Explicit: aware of these, able to explain behaviors with this  Definitions:   o Self­image/ self­concept  Summary of our self­perceptions  I am ______  Interdependent: roles with other people  Independent: key characteristic of you  Erik Erikson:  Lifespan Identity (1902­1994)  o Self­schema (Markus, 1977)  Not just a part of your self­description, but an important part of you.  It helps you notice/judge/remember certain aspects of situations that others might not notice/judge/remember  Ex. Neatness  o Self­esteem  Estimation of self­worth  Some people think of this as a goal  Others think of it as the gage of your social relationships o Self­efficacy (Bandura, 1986)  Confidence in competency/ ability  Boost our self­efficacy by past successes  Boost self­efficacy by actively participating in actions/coping with stress o Self­discrepancies (Strauman & Higgins, 1987)  Gaps between ideal, actual, and ought selves  Three different kind of selves  Actual: who am I?  Ideal: who do I wish I were?  Ought: who should I be?  Discrepancy between actual and ideal selves → depression  Discrepancy between actual and ought selves → anxiety   Mental health = overlap between all 3  Self­efficacy o Locus of Control  External or internal   Internals feel like they have more power over their lives  More likely to delay gratification, wear seat belts, wear condoms; make  more money.  perfect/in their control., more guilt and stress when things aren’t   Externals have decreased access to goods, power.  More likely to be external = Being a first born, having parents who are  supportive.during childhood, having family that is protective and   Rodin and Langer (1976) o Nursing home experiment: one group was put in a standard care  condition; one group able to have control and make choices o Group with choices were noticeably happier, social, lived longer, more alert o Learned Helplessness (Seligman)  Learned helplessness and resignation due to perceiving repeated bad events that  is out of their control.  Effects:  Motivational: no longer trying  Cognitive: harder time learning that things can go well  Emotional: depression  immune system performanceo fight off infections, etc. because of decreased  o longer who had more internal LOC were more likely to live  o Reactance theory (Brehm)  Motivation increases even though the first attempt didn’t go well o Prior failures vs. prior successes determine whether you are more likely to fall into  learned helplessness or reactance   Treated with CBT  Self­serving Bias = Beneffectance o Attributions for events  Internal attributions for our successes (we take credit for doing well)  External attributions for our failures (we push of credit for not doing well) o Better than average phenomenon  Ex. Business people tend to rate themselves as being more ethical than typical  business people  Ex. How good are you at being able to get along with other people?  No one said below average; everyone said they were average or better  Socially desirable and subjective statements are more likely to fall into this  phenomenon  Make us seem better than we are o Social comparisons  Upward or downward comparisons?  Depends on whether we’re motivated to improve ourselves or not o Improve ourselves → upward comparisons o Not improving ourselves (when we’re being lazy) → downward  comparisons  False consensus or uniqueness?  Everyone is doing it = false consensus o Speeding, cheating on taxes  I’m special = false uniqueness o Eating healthy, donating blood o Unrealistic optimism  Can boost your happiness, but put you at risk  Not wearing your seat belt  Self­presentation o Self­handicapping o Impression management o Self­monitoring  Ability and willingness to change your self­presentation depending on the  situation  Balanced between fitting in and being liked (high self­monitoring) vs. being their real self (low self­monitoring)  More consistent across situations, more likely to make people mad about  being themselves: low  Better actors, better salesmen, politician: high o False modesty


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