Popular in History US to 1877
Popular in History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison McEwin on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1320 at Texas State University taught by Ron Johnson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History US to 1877 in History at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
US History to 1877 Week 2 Discovery The discovery of America, and that of a passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, are the two greatest and most important events recorded in the history of mankind. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, 1776 This is what we call a secondary source – it’s about an event, out of context of the time period. A primary source is – about and event during the time it happened The Discovery of America Happened 1500 years ago on the land bridge. This bridge caused a divide between the people who crossed the bridge and the people who stayed in Asia/Europe (that place over there across the pond) The division happened over the course of 1500 years. Diets will be different between the people They will have different languages They will have developed different religions Unique Agriculture will develop in the Americas because of the lack of large livestock (meat) The Mexica The Mexica were the leaders of the Aztec Empire. In 1325 – The Mexica grow their domain by dominated native tribes and have 8 – 25 million people in the Aztec Empire Central Mexico Group force military campaign Conquered people are forced to pay tribute One dominated group are called Chalca They redistribute tributes to conquered people Loyal groups get more goods (think hunger games) Loyal groups have more influence No matter how loyal your tribe was you could NEVER be Mexica Use of Violence Harbored feelings of resentment not loyalty Tenochititlan Had A temple Religion A palace So they have a government Market They had a trade center They had resources Aqueducts Had resources Solidifies their dominance The Spanish came over and saw a society so unlike their own they didn’t realize these Native Americans had everything that makes up a society. The considered them to be barbarians without religion or recognizable king Demarcations – The Defining Lines Native American Religion Religion will be very important Dictates when to farm When to hunt Religious / Spiritual Power Creator brought forth the world Religious men were given great respect Forcing one group to believe a religion was not a part of Native American Society Land The idea of OWNING land within Native American culture didn’t exist. It belonged to the creator of earth. It’s a Eurocentric idea to own land They roamed the land They killed for land but never owned it The Newcomers Giovanni da Verrazono Italian born man Sailed for Spain Arrives on the coast of America in 1524 off the coast of South Carolina He’s catholic He’s wealthy He is looking for resources Spain can use Primary Source Giovanni De Verrazono We did not find any living thing of great value, except for the vast forests and hills which could contain some metal. We consider that they [the natives] have no religion and that they live in absolute freedom He obviously doesn’t see their religion because it is different than his own. This is the first time he’s met someone so different from him and the Native Americans not having churches, to him, means they have no religion. He doesn’t see a king like his own and for the same reason thinks they have no government and are “in absolute freedom” and it’s not a complement. Asia Christopher Columbus Italian born Sails for Spain October 1492 (Columbus sailed the Ocean Blue) Three ships Santa Maria Pinta Nina Trying to reach Asia (thought he made it till he died. No one thought he did except him) Encounters the Tainos People on the island of Hispaniola Builds the first sustained engagement The second time Columbus comes to America he brings 17 ships 1,200 men He takes 1,600 tainos people 500 sent back to Spain 200 of these people will perish on the trip Annihilation Within a single generation of contact with the Spain controls all of the land from Central America to South America (approx.) Conquest will being with the destruction of the Aztec Empire Hernando Cortez Departs Cuba in 1519 and heads out toward the Yukatan Peninsula. He has 550 men and is going to the capital of the Aztec Empire to defeat the Mexica. Enlists people Join or Die isn’t necessarily true here though – while he is a butcher he offers the first group freedom from the Mexica – this initial contact between Cortez and the first tribe changes the definition of freedom among these conquered tribes. These tribes cross multiple lines of Demarcation coming together with Cortez to defeat the Mexica A common goal two parties are working together for can help people with many differences work together Both Parties are willing to work together for the goal. The conquered people want to overthrow the Mexica because they are suppressed. Those that didn’t help Cortez were fought (more loyal to Mexica) by those who were loyal to Cortez. Disease Native Americans did not have immunity to the diseases brought by Europeans Some thought they were cursed by the Europeans Smallpox Measles Flu The Number of People (these were humans, living people) Killed 1492 – 1 million Tainos 1518 – 1000 Tainos still alive 1550 – The Taino people cease to exist Tenochtitlan Valley By 1600 there will be 70,000 people left of the original 8 – 25 million. All of Mexico 1500 – 20 million people 1600 – 2 million Native Americans are left in all of Mexico Europeans Probably didn’t Mean for So Many to Die The world’s population dropped by 20% 100 years after the introduction of Europeans to America This death was mostly because Native Americans didn’t have the immunities the Europeans had. Assets Dynamics of freedom fluctuate under Spanish rule by conversion of religion and by loyalty to Spanish rulers. Some Native Americans continue to resist those who resisted died or were forced to work. There were a lot of exchanges of good that were important to both the Americas and Europe. We call this the Columbian exchange. Trade was one of the ways these two cultures crossed lines of demarcation o The Americas received from Europe Peaches Rice Sugarcane Wheat Citrus fruits Livestock (cows, chickens, pigs) Livestock would dramatically change life in the Americas Horses Horses opened a whole new way for Native Americans to travel and fight. Places they had never been before they could now easily get to. o Europe received from the Americas Pumpkins Pineapples Chocolate Beans Squash Sweet potatoes Tobacco Tomatoes Turkeys The Potato Silver and Gold Silver and gold from the Americas increases Spain’s power. Spain now has more resources and is able to afford to do more than other European countries. The Potato o This crop would increase the dynamics of freedom in Europe by feeding the poor Poor are able to feed more people (starch is filling) More children More workers Provided financial freedom o Silver and Gold coming in increases inflation This hurts the poor as they are the first to feel money being worth less as they already have so little New Spain Spanish authority makes effort to assimilate Native Americans into Spanish culture. They want to use Native Americans as free labor (Like the Borg...) The Spanish teach the Native Americans the Spanish language and force them to convert to Catholicism. This is very similar to what happened with the Mexica, those who are not Spanish by birth and automatically worth less. Spain sends 12,000 Spanish men and on 1,500 Spanish women – this will lead legalization of intermarriage by 1514 (Columbus arrived in 1492). The children of these couples are called Mestizos. These children will change the dynamics of freedom by being born. Those who are born Spanish have the most rights, politically, economically, and socially. Native Americans have the least rights politically and economically. Mestizos have more political and economic power but they have the least socially because they are between two worlds, not quite Spanish but not quite Native American. Order of Power 1. Spanish 2. Mestizos 3. Native Americas Evangelization Reconquista The series of military campaigns by which Christian armies reclaimed control of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors, starting in the eighth century and culminating in the fall of Granada in 1492. Read more at http://www.yourdictionary.com/reconquista#mcqgsxsJf35Gcxsl.99 In 1492 Islam controls much more land than Christianity. Spain will defeat he Moors (first time in 800 years) and no longer be fighting them so they actually have funds that don’t need to be spent on a war. They can now fund Columbus to go and find America. Spain going to America will establish Catholicism as the main religion in the Americas because In 1517 Martin Luther (from the University of Wittenburg) in an effort to make his student think and stimulate their brains – writes 95 thesis and hangs them up. People take this as him questioning the Catholic faith. People are worried about these and view them as a protest to Catholicism – this beings the protestant movement. In 1517 if you were to be born in Europe you were born Catholic. If you wanted to go to heaven you had to follow the Catholic faith by preforming all of your duties to the church. Luther proposed it was grace alone and that you simply chose whether you were Christian or not. All you need to do was accept god. The Grace Alone idea would change the dynamics of freedom in Europe. In the protestant countries – Germany, Holland, etc. – you had three options. Convert to Protestantism, flee the country or die. In catholic countries – France, Spain, etc. – You could convert to Catholicism, flee the country, or die. There were thousands of deaths at this time because there was no religious freedom in Europe and people were willing to be killed for their faith. Because of this protestant movement Spain becomes necessary for the spread of Christianity to the Americas. Franciscan (an order of Catholic monks) tried to convert Native Americans. The monks saw converting the Native Americans as helping because they were saving their souls from hell. Those who did not give up their religion were seen as a threat to the church and were killed by the Spanish Army. The monks did not realize the Native did not want to convert because they already had a religion. They thought they were ‘savages’ and didn’t have any type of religion at all because it was different. Another order of monks called the Jesuits (also catholic) came to the Americas also to convert Native Americans. They were the first of the Spanish to realize that the Native Americans already had a religion and chose to live among them for a long time until they were accepted and only then would they ask them to convert – not force them. They blended ceremonies and relics from both religions so the Native Americans would feel comfortable worshiping the judeochristian god. There was less religious freedom under the Spanish rule. The Pueblo Revolt Pueblo people (modern day New Mexico) revolt against Spanish rule under the leadership of Popé. He creates a army and they drive out the Spanish and regain territory and their religious freedom for 12 years until 1692.
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