ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #1
ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #1 ARCH 2243 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2243 - 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Kim Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
1-20-2016 Proprietary Design and the New Responsibilites of the Early Modern Architect: Filippo Brunelleschi Early Renaissance Architectural Figures o Filippo Brunelleschi (1376-1444) – goldsmith, sculptor, architect o Leon Battista Alberti (1404 – 1472) – author, theorist, architect Renaissance Style – rebirth of classical roman antiquity therefore smushing the medieval period I. Dome of Florence Cathedral – Florence, Italy – 15 Century – Filippo Brunelleschi – Gothic Italian Gothic – it doesn’t de-materialize things, not a lot of stained glass Brunelleschi – first early modern architect Innovation oPeople often compared this to the pantheon oPantheon dome is 142 feet x 142 feet on a thick octagon oDome of Florence dome was 130 feet wide and not as tall Too much scaffolding would be needed – so question how would it be done without scaffolding? Brunellschi created two shells of the dome The use of bricks stacked deep with a diagonal line of bricks every 3 feet between the horizontal bricks Context oBrunelleschi created a lot of new machinery for building Platforms for workers inside the brickwork Hoists and cranks to bring things up and down using animals oHow did he get everything so geometrically perfect though? NO ONE KNOWS :P 1-20-2016 Perception oFlorence / Italy wanted more credit for Brunelleschi had created due to the fact that he didn’t have histories foot steps to follow in, everything he created he did all on his own oThe Dome is the widest and tallest thing in all of Florence II. Hospital and Loggia of the Innocents – Florence, Italy – 15 cent – Brunelleschi – Renaissance Context oThe innocents are children who have been abandoned by their parents who probably could not afford them, or if parents had too many children they would drop the unwanted child off at these places oThe change – concentration of the wealth in fewer hands leaving the lower class not enough oWealthy silk guild men commissioned this project oWhy would a hospital need a loggia The idea was not new There for children and patients to get fresh air while staying in the shade The hospital wanted to show off their good work Maybe if the parents who dropped their children saw them there they would want them back Signature Style oCharacteristics and Self-imposed rules of Brunelleschi Materials and color palatte pietra serena (grey stone) Preferred Order Corinthian Order Avoid distracting variation (very repetitive) Crisp clean separation of parts to indicate tectonics of architecture Vault type pendentive or sail vault Humanism oIntellectually measured space 1-20-2016 Brunelleschi made a painting and held it picture facing out and held a mirror in front and the painting and building lined up perfectly This was the first method of creating a one point perspective oPerfectly measured proportions Under the logia he placed a different colored brick from each column to the wall to complete the circle of arch and column 1-22-2016 Brunelleschi and the Rationalization of Space in the Early Renaissance I. Old Sacristy – Florence, Italy – 15 Century – Brunelleschi – Renaissance Context o Combination sacristy and mortuary chapel o Does not have many narrative pictures or graphics anywhere o In Romanesque there were radiating chapels where relics where and some families could watch mass in in this there were family memorial chapels of just the upper class that were buried there and their name would be spoken in mass every day o Early Modern scale of things change, organizational and administrative changes o Everything is based off of the square part across from the chapel o In 1444 smaller family chapels were added to the sides of the aisle (when Brunelleschi got fired – probably needed more money) Signature Style o Relation of Main Space to Small Chancel Grey stone demarcates the architecture Leaves a lot of blank wall because it’s a sacristy so there would need to be a lot of big furniture so you would need blank space Under the entablature there were 4 consoles on each wall to show geometry and support Starts as a square and then moves up into a circular dome o Weight of Classical Order Working with all flat things so the only “columns: were pilasters Pilasters show strength and solidarity therefore Brunelleschi wanted NO seams even though they are just decoration Corner ones were split exactly in half 1-22-2016 Symbolism o Math and number symbolism o Earthly place = less decoration, barren and square o Cornice = divider between earth and heaven o Above cornice = heaven = circular because its more perfect than a square because it has less angles and the same diameter everywhere, circular lunette, circular roundels, dome separated in 12 ‘slices’ with a perfect circle of light o On exterior = open lantern for that open circle, imitates the holy sepulcher in Jerusalem o In the cornice there are red and blue angels drawn in that represent Seraphim and Cherubim that represent judgement day o In the roundels there are 4 evangelists o The larger roundels have St. John the Evangelist ( because Giovanni is the same name as John – more sacrality from his patron saint) II. Santo Spirito – Florence, Italy – 15 cent. – Brunelleschi – Renaissance Context oInterior where you can recognize the color palette, smooth shaft and Corinthian style = his own style oPluralistic patronage base oLess wealthy area pools money together to build this very different parish church Signature Style oSail vaults oSeparation in tiling in the floor to demarcate the lines of the columns and perspectival view towards the nave and each arch in the ceiling oThe dome over the crossing is a pumpkin or sail dome oColumns are all left at the same floor level oAwkward Moments 1-22-2016 Two semi-circular protruding chapels at a corner will smush together so you get a strange window there A really large pier on the corner of the crossing where the dome is making the last arch way a little smaller Theory oCentralized church because everything is based off of square units 15 -century Aesthetics oEvenly lite to create the church or sacred space as meditative area oGod is the architect oSpace is defined as an abstract space that is established by walls and columns – pure air delineated by columns or thin walls oIntellectually measured space not psychology or emotions oAbsence of mass oKind of like Romanesque – flat ceiling, columns with arches, have a similarity in square measuring oStyle = new vision not copying and applying ornament o15 century = divine revealed through rational, mathematical purity
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