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Attitudes and Behaviors

by: Chandler Massengale

Attitudes and Behaviors PSYC 223

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Psychlogy > PSYC 223 > Attitudes and Behaviors
Chandler Massengale
C of C
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Attitudes and Behaviors, Chapter 4
Social Psychology
Dr. Lisa Ross
Class Notes
Psychology, social psychology, social, attitudes, behaviors
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Massengale on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 223 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Lisa Ross in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at College of Charleston.

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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 4: Behaviors and Attitudes  Introduction o Definition: what is an attitude?  A favorable or unfavorable reaction toward something or someone, exhibited in affect, behavior, and cognition o Historical note  “The attitude is social psychology’s core idea” –Gordon Allport, 1935  Can measure attitudes via a direct scale or indirectly o Indirectly measured: seismic sensors, behavioral indices o Assumption and the Crisis (Wicker, 1969)  The assumption was that attitudes predict behavior  Only overlap at r = .30  Behavior is linked to expressed attitude, but the true attitude isn’t always the same  There are other influences on behavior and attitudes  Ways to Strengthen Attitudes Predicting Behavior o Minimize Social Desirability Influences  Bogus pipeline method:  people tend to express an attitude closer to their true attitude because we trick them into thinking we are tracking their physical reactiveness  Measure social desirability  And statistically control or delete people who score very high or low when monitoring their own social desirability o Minimize Other Situational Influences  Take an aggregate measure of situational influences o Match Specificity  Match measures with behaviors  Ex. Measuring recycling attitudes by recycling behaviors o Maximize Awareness  Making people more self-conscious  Using mirrors influences their behavior because they are watching themselves do actions  Having people think about their attitudes about a subject o Consider Potency  Do people have personal experiences with these attitudes?  Better predictors of behavior o Consider Individual Differences (e.g., self-monitoring)  Some people have a stronger/weaker relationship between what they think and what they do  People with more self-monitoring change more across situations/people and are less attitude-behavior consistency  Trump is a great example of someone with low self- monitoring  Does Behavior Predict Attitudes? o Support  Role Playing  Stanford Prison Study affected the attitudes of those in it  Janis & Mann (1965) o Recruited women smokers that were randomly assigned to 2 groups: standard “smoking is bad for you” info, role playing the part of someone with lung cancer for 20-30 mins.  Role players were more likely to quit smoking  Believing What We Say  Saying becomes believing effect  Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon  Get people to agree to the smaller favor first and then they will be more likely to get the bigger thing  Effort Justification Effect  If you have to work hard for something, it is better or more worth it or more valuable o Applications  Therapy  Changing behavior is a great treatment  CBT  Race Relations  1954 was the end of separate but equal o Forced a behavior change  Social Movements  Saying the Pledge of Allegiance increases patriotism and conforming to social constructions  Public rituals to increase private conformity  Brainwashing  Nazism  Religion and Rituals  To strengthen faith and identity o Explanations  Impression Management Theory  Aka self-presentation theory  We want to appear consistent to others o People will change their attitudes to match their behaviors  Cognitive Dissonance Theory  Festinger’s study  Self-Perception Theory  Holding your pencil in your teeth makes you like things more  Holding your pencil in your lips makes you dislike things more o Strack et al. (1988)  Wells & Petty (1980)  Actions affect attitudes


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