Week 2 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Garrett Bryant on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Tuesday, January 26 Tuesday, January 26, 2011:57 PM The Scientific Method 1. Observe some phenomenon 2. Formulate a hypothesis and a prediction (or more) 3. Testing through empirical research 4. Drawing conclusions 5. Evaluating conclusions • Variables ○ Anythingthatcan change • Theory ○ A broad explanation or prediction about thetopic of interest § Must be falsifiable • Hypothesis ○ A prediction thatis statedin a way that allows it tobe tested • OperationalDefinition ○ The translation of a hypothesis into specific,testable procedures § Ex: Helping behavior Research: Descriptive • Naturalistic observation ○ Behavior is observed in its natural environment, with no interference § Advantages - Natural, spontaneous behavior § Disadvantages - researcher has no control • Surveys ○ A representativesample of people are asked questionsabout various topics § Advantages - Quick,inexpensive § Disadvantages - Sample may not be representative, bias may skew results, people may not respond honestly. • Case Study ○ Behavior of one person or a group of people is studied ndepth § Advantages - Provides detailed, descriptive information; useful for forming hypotheses may skew results, people may not respond honestly. • Case Study ○ Behavior of one person or a group of people is studied indepth § Advantages - Provides detailed, descriptive information; useful for forming hypotheses § Disadvantages - May not apply to other people/groups; timeconsuming and expensive; researcher bias Research: Correlation • The relationship between two variables is examined to determine if they are associated • Correlation coefficient tells us the strengthand the direction of the relationship ○ Positive- varies together ○ Negative- varies opposite ○ Larger relationship closer to 1 Thursday, January 28 Thursday, January 28, 2011:36 PM Research: Correlation • Correlation does not equal causation!!!! ○ If two things are correlated, it does not always mean that one causes the other ○ Testing must be done to determine the relationship ○ There is a correlation between ice cream sales and murder rates, but that doesn't mean that buying ice cream causes murders. Research: Experimental • Treatment ○ Manipulation used by the experimenter • Experimental group ○ Group that receives treatment manipulation • Control group ○ Group that receives no treatment manipulation. • Independent variable ○ The variable being manipulated • Dependent variable ○ The variable being measured • Random Assignment ○ The process of randomly choosing which groups participants will be in ○ Helps to eliminate researcher bias ○ Alsoallows all groups tobesimilarly diverse § This allows the independent variable to be purely measured • Validity ○ External Validity § Does thestudy measurethereal -world issues it is supposed to measure? ○ Internal Validity § Arechanges in thedependent variable dueto manipulation ○ External Validity § Does thestudy measurethereal -world issues it is supposed to measure? ○ Internal Validity § Arechanges in thedependent variable dueto manipulation of the independent variable? ○ Validity is used todetermine whether the goals of the study have been achieved and whether bias has been managed. • Experimenter Bias ○ The experimenter's expectations can influence the research § Demand characteristics □ Anythingthattells theparticipantshow the researcher wants them to behave Research Ethics • The IRB (independent research board) evaluates all experiments for adherence to APA guidelines ○ Informed consent § Participants must be aware of what is expected of them during the study § Includes things such as informing the participant that their participation is voluntary and that they have a right to understand the studybefore agreeing to participate ○ Protection of participants from physical and mental harm § This is to ensure that participants aren't expected to be subject to any mental or physical harm that wouldn't normally befall them in the course of everyday life. ○ Right to privacy § Participants must be informed about how their information will be used and shared, as well as who will have access to theirdata ○ Voluntary Participation § Allparticipation is voluntary and consent may bewithdrawn at any time. No research subject shall be required to submit to any studythat they deem to be in violation of any of their rights. ○ Debriefing at conclusion of study § Allparticipantsshall beinformed as to thefullspectrumof teststhat were being conducted,as well as what the researchers were looking for. ○ Deception? of their rights. ○ Debriefing at conclusion of study § Allparticipantsshall beinformed as to thefullspectrumof teststhat were being conducted,as well as what the researchers were looking for. ○ Deception? § It is acceptable for researchers to lie to participants in order to prevent invalidation of the study due to participant bias. All deception will be explained during the debriefing, and participants will be allowed to refuse to allow their data tobe used in thestudyif they feel thattheirrights have been violated.