PSYC 101 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Notes
PSYC 101 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Notes PSYC 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angela Potter on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Towson University taught by Barbara Wilson in Spring 2013. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
PSYC 101 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception▯ ▯ Sensation: the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment through the ﬁve senses▯ Perception: The brain’s process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give the information meaning ▯ Transduction: process whereby physical energy is converted into electrochemical energy.▯ ▯ - Relays information through the nervous system to the brain▯ Sensory and Perception is a uniﬁed information processing system that is virtually inseparable ▯ ▯ Sensation▯ Sensory receptors are:▯ • specialized cells that selectively detect and transmit sensory information ot the brain. Cells send signals via distinct neural pathways that are call Afferent pathways▯ • Synaesthesia : describes an experience in which one sense (like sight) induces an experience in another sense (like hearing) e.g., a person might see music or taste color▯ ▯ Phantom Limb Pain▯ • Although an arm or leg is no longer there, pain is felt where the leg or arm was.▯ • The leg contains the sensory receptors sites which are no longer there. BUT the areas of the brain and nervous system that received information from those receptor sites are still there causing confusion▯ ▯ Sensation▯ Photoreception (vision): detection of light▯ Mechanorecpetor (touch): detection of pressure, vibration, and movement ▯ Chemorecption ( smell and taste): detection of chemical stimuli/reception▯ Hearing: detection of air waves into ﬂuid▯ ▯ Factors Affecting Perception▯ Attention: the process of focusing awareness on a narrowed or speciﬁc aspect of the environment ▯ Selective attention: focusing on a speciﬁc aspect of the environment while ignoring others▯ • Cocktail party effect (automatic selection) ( you concentrate on one voice among many ▯ ▯ in a crowd. Stroop Effect: Failure of selection▯ Novelty, size, color, movement, emotions inﬂuence our attention▯ • Emotion induced blindness: When we encounter an emotionally- charged stimuli. We fail ▯ • to recognize a stimulus that is presented immediately after it.▯ • Inattentional blindness: we fail to detect unexpected events when our attention in ▯ ▯ engaged by a task.▯ ▯ Ex. Focused on task of ﬁnding a seat and do not detect a friend waving to us▯ ▯ Extrasensory Perception▯ • Perceive thoughts or events in the absence of concrete sensory input - parapsychology ▯ • Problematic (doubtful) for science▯ • What type of energy encodes the information?▯ • By what receptors is the information received?▯ • Total lack of supportive research evidence▯ • Stories / Experiences that seem to support ESP not rigorous ▯ Structure of the Eye▯ Visual System▯ Light: a form of electromagnetic radiation, described in terms of wavelengths ▯ ▯ Visual Systems - Eye structure ▯ Sclera: White outer part of the eye. It shapes and protects the eye▯ Iris: Colored parts of the eye. It is a muscle that contracts and relaxes▯ Pupil: The opening in the center of the iris. It controls the amount of light entering the eye▯ Cornea: Clear, curved membrane in front of the eye covering the pupil and iris. It focuses the light on the retina▯ Lens: located behind the pupil and iris. it ﬁne tunes the focus by ﬂexing the curvature ▯ ▯ Structure of the Eye: Retina▯ Retina: a light sensitive surface in back of the eye that houses light receptor cells - rods and cones. ▯ Rods: Receptors in the retina sensitive to light but not to color. Low light and peripheral ▯▯ vision.▯ ▯ -Sensitive to even dim light, but not color▯ ▯ - Function well in low illumination ▯ ▯ - Humans have = 120 million rods▯ Cones: receptor cells that detect color - requires large amounts of light for color to be detected▯ ▯ - Respond to color▯ ▯ - operate best under high illumination▯ ▯ humans have = 6 million cones▯ The rods and cones convert light into electrical energy▯ Fovea▯ • Densely populated with cones▯ • Vital to many visual tasks▯ • Optic nerves leaves from the retina at the blind spot▯ • Blind spot contains neither rods nor cones▯ • where optic nerve leaves the eyeball▯ ▯ Visual Processing ▯ pathway of visual info▯ optic nerve, optic chiasm, visual content▯ optic chiasm: optic nerve ﬁbers divide▯ left visual ﬁeld, right hemisphere▯ right visual ﬁeld, left hemisphere▯ Primary visual cortex▯ occipital lobe▯ ▯ Color Vision: Theories▯ What we perceive is produced by 3 types of receptors in the retina:▯ ▯ -green, red, and blue cones▯ Color Blindness: one or more cone types is inoperative ▯ ▯ Properties of Sound▯ Wavelength: Distance between peaks▯ • Determines frequency▯ • Perceived as pitch▯ • Some wave lengths cannot be perceived ▯ Amplitude: height of wave▯ • Perceived as loudness▯ Mixture of Wavelengths; Complex sounds▯ • Perceived as timbre/tone saturation▯ ▯ Structure of the Ear▯ • Outer ear localizes sound▯ • Middle ear vibrates in response to sound waves▯ • Has 3 bones: hammer, stirup, anvole▯ • The purpose of the 3 bones are to take the stimulus energy coming in the form of sound waves in the form of air and converts it to sound waves in ﬂuid by vibration ▯ Cochlea is ﬂuid ﬁlled▯ sound waves that travel in ﬂuid of cochlea ▯ ▯ Auditory Processing ▯ Pathways of Auditory Information▯ • Cochlea -> auditory nerves -> brain stem -> temporal lobe▯ Most information crosses to other hemisphere▯ • ▯ Skin sense - 20 sq. ft (largest organ on human body)▯ Skin senses are managed by touch▯ • Touch: is a mechanical energy or pressure against the skin▯ • Temperature-thermo: receptors under the skin detect increase or decrease in temperature▯ Pain-mechanical pressure (Anhidrosis): ▯ ▯ Other Senses▯ • Chemical - taste and smell▯ • Taste▯ • Receptors on tongue: papillae (round bumps on the tongue) that contain taste buds that are receptors for taste▯ • Sweet, sour, bitter, salty▯ • Cultural inﬂuence: umami-a savory ﬂavor present in many seafood and soy sauce, anchovies, parmesan cheese, etc▯ • Smell (olfactory sense): we need the sees of smell to determine what we eat (rotten food)▯ • olfactory epithelium: at the top of the naval cavity, where the receptor cells are▯ • temporal lobe and limbic system▯ • Kinesthetic▯ • movement, posture, orientation▯ • muscle ﬁbers and joints▯ • Vestibular▯ • balance and acceleration ▯ semicircular canals▯ • ▯ Sensation, Perception, and Health and Wellness▯ • Protecting ones vision and hearing ▯ • diet ▯ • medical examinations ▯ avoiding chronic exposure▯ • • Treating our senses to the great outdoors
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