Elements of Psychology 1113 Week 2 Notes
Elements of Psychology 1113 Week 2 Notes PSY 1113
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Henry on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Psychology Notes Week 2 Prompt: you are studying alcoholism, what questions would you ask your patients that deal with the 7 contemporary schools of thought? ● Biological: How healthy do you feel with it? Does your family has a history of alcoholism? Do you just not like withdrawals? ● Behavioral: How does drinking make you feel? Do you feel rewarded when you drink? ● Psychodynamic : Did anyone in your family drink as you were growing up? ● Humanistic: Did you decide to drink excessively? Do you feel fulfilled? ● Cognitive: Does your point of view push you to drink? Does drinking make you feel more creative? ● Evolutionary: Do you like the warmth alcohol gives you? Do you have an addictive personality? Is there some sort of reward for alcoholic behavior in the past? ● Sociocultural: Do people around you drink? Are you socially pressured to drink? Is drinking a cultural custom? Chapter 2: Research Five Steps: 1. Observe some phenomenon 2. Formulate a hypotheses and predictions 3. Testing through empirical results 4. Drawing conclusions (EX use statistics to explain the phenomenon) 5. Evaluate conclusions (EX how other react to your results, peer review, which push them to try it themselves) Key Terms: ● Variable: anything that can change (EX weather) ● Theory: a broad explanation or prediction about the topic of interest (must be falsifiable, or must be ABLE to prove it wrong) ● Hypothesis: a prediction that is stated in a way that allows it to be tested ● Operational definition: the translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures (EX: helping behavior) Types of Research: Descriptive ● Naturalistic Observation: behavior is observed in its natural; environment with NO interference (advantages: the behavior is not influenced by the experimenter's appearance)(disadvantages: researchers have no control) ● Survey: a representative sample of people are asked questions about various topics (advantages: quick and inexpensive) (Disadvantages: people lie, and they are boring, bad wording bias) ● Case Study: Behavior of one person or a group of people is studied indepth (advantages: more accurate information) (disadvantages: not much room for generalizing, bias from researcher) Types of Research: Correlational ● The relationship between two variables is examined to determine if they are associated ● Correlation coefficient (+1 or 1) tells us the strength and the direction of the relationship ○ Positive: varies together ○ Negative: varies opposite ○ Larger relationships closer to 1 Correlation does not equal causation! EX: ● Ice cream does not actually lead to murdering people or vice versa, so there may be a third variable! ○ Such as ice cream sales AND murder rates are affected by the temperature outside getting hotter Terms used in psychology: ● Treatment: manipulation used by an experimenter ● Experimental group: the group that receives the treatment ● Control: the group that does not receive treatment manipulation ● Independent Variable : the variable being manipulated ● Dependent variable: the variable being measured ● External Validity does the study measure the realworld issues it is supposed to measure? ● Internal Validi: are changes in the dependent variable due to manipulation of the independent variable? Or is there some unknown variable making the experiment invalid? Research Ethics: What is ethical or not? ● IRB (independent research board) evaluates all experiments for adherence to APA guidelines ○ Informed Consent (paper saying that you officially say yes) ○ Protection of participants from physical and mental harm ○ Right of participant to privacy ○ Voluntary Participation ○ Deception ○ Debriefing at conclusion of study
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