Psych 101 Week 2 Notes
Psych 101 Week 2 Notes 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elena Yeroushalmi on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Prof Mccailife in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro Lab in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Lecture 2 Perception is an Active Process • Seems like we just see the world as it is, like a camera. o Wrong! Our perception is not like a camera, it is very complex. o Camera pictures are made up of megapixels that create a picture. • Perception is the result of active processing of information. o You can look at an image in 2 different ways but cameras only see 1 thing. • Illusions reveal those active processes. o Illusions tell us something about how the transforms processes. The Effect of Context • The middle dots in both pictures (below) are the same size. o When you look at something in the world, it is affected by the things that are around it. o Shows the effects of context on perception. • Neurons in the visual system are affected by their neighbors. • Opposite Neighbor Effect- Our perception of things can be effected by the surroundings o Things look smaller next to bigger things. See Spots • You see little grey dots in between the squares and you know it’s an illusion. o This demonstrates that vision in the center is different than vision on the outside. • Cones vs. Rods. o Cone Cells- In the middle of the retina ▯ Process color and sharp visual acuity (attention to detail). o Rod Cells- (Night-vision cells) On the outside of the retina (periphery). ▯ They are good at detecting things with a small amount of light because they need less light to function. • Same effect of opposite neighbor context, but with brightness. Illusion • The intersections have brighter neighborhoods because there are 4 lines in the intersection. o Lateral inhibition! Complications of Explanation • There are not as many dots in this picture because the lines are curved, not straight. Resolving Ambiguity – Faces and Vases • This is called an ambiguous figure because it creates 2 images, but you can’t see both at the same time. • What causes you to see one more than the other one? o Background and Foreground Relationship ▯ You can see a vase or 2 faces. o Priming- Our previous experiences can influence what we see depending on what we have seen in the past. o We shift our focus from the vase to the face ▯ We choose what we are trying to see. o Variability ▯ Parts of the brain that see this as faces and other parts see it as a vase. Resolving Ambiguity – Old and Young • Requires previous experiences that can create different interpretations. Resolving Ambiguity – Many Cubes Uses of Perception • Recognizing things. o Objects o Faces and expressions • Helps us interact with the world. o Grasping, manipulating, and throwing. o Navigation: Walking, avoiding obstacles. Diagram of Pathways • V1 = Primary Visual Cortex • Information goes from V1 ▯ Thalamus ▯ LGN ▯ Eye • Posterior Parietal Pathways = “Where” Pathways o Helps you recognize where things are. • Inferior Temporal Pathway = “What” Pathways o Helps you recognize what things are. Trick to Remember: You are on a boat and you see a dorsal fin. The dorsal fin indicates “where” it is but you don’t know “what” it is (shark or dolphin). Trick to Remember: You are on a boat and you see a dorsal fin. The Inferior (BELOW) Temporal pathway ▯ If you go BELOW (Inferior) the water, then you can tell WHAT it is (Dolphin or shark) Evidence of Separate Pathways • Ablation Study Task 1: Matching similar objects together o Procedure: ▯ Show the monkey object A (Ex: Star) and ask him which object out of the 3 looks the most similar to object A. ▯ Show him 3 objects • Square • Circle • Distorted Star o Results: ▯ Damaged Inferior Temporal (Ventral/”What”) • Can’t do this task because they don’t know what the food is. ▯ Damaged Posterior Parietal (Dorsal/”Where”) • Can do this task because they know what the food is, they just can’t grab it because they don’t know where it is. o Conclusion: ▯ Inferior Temporal (Ventral/”What”) is important for object recognition. • Task 2: Choose an object which is physically closer to the third object. o Procedure: ▯ Show the monkey 3 objects and ask which object is physically closest to the middle object. o Results: ▯ Damaged Inferior Temporal (Ventral/”What”) • Can do this task because they don’t need to know what the object is, they just need to know where the objects are in relation to each other. ▯ Damaged Posterior Parietal (Dorsal/”Where”) • Can’t do this task because they need to know where the object is in relation to each other. o Conclusion: ▯ Posterior Parietal (Dorsal/”Where”) is important for spatial location. Patient D.F • Background: o Damage to Inferior Temporal (Ventral/What) from carbon monoxide. • Impairments: o Cannot recognize objects normally. o Cannot make explicit visual judgments (Ex: Line up a block). o Reports virtually no visual experience. • Spared Functions: o Can walk around and avoid objects. o Hikes in mountains. o Can mail a letter. Double Dissociation • Processing “what” and “where” is a double dissociation. • Double Dissociation- Where one stream is damaged, but the other is intact. o Patients who have damage to brain area X ▯ Impaired at behavior A but normal at behavior B. o Patients who have damage to brain area Y ▯ Impaired at behavior B but normal at behavior A. • Another Example: Two ways to recognize faces o Recognize a face as a person. o Connecting a face with emotional response. ▯ Capgras Syndrome- System 2 (emotional response) is damaged. • Capgras Syndrome- A condition in which the emotional appraisal system is damaged. o Someone with this syndrome is able to recognize the people in his world (Ex: Wife, parents, etc…) but he is convinced that these people are imposters and that something happened to the real person (Ex: Died, kidnapped, etc…). o He will insist that there are minor changes in personality or appearance that no one else can detect. • Facial recognition involves 2 separate systems in the brain… 1. Cognitive Appraisal- (Ex: “I know what my father looks like, and I can perceive that you closely resemble him”) 2. Emotional Appraisal- (Ex: “You look familiar to me and also trigger a warm response in me”) o The combination of these 2 appraisals allows the person to truly recognize that this person is their father.
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