Man's Food (FOS2001) Module 2, Lesson 5
Man's Food (FOS2001) Module 2, Lesson 5 FOS 2001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
FOS2001 Notes Lesson 5 **all notes taken from the online Pearson modules and the Kendall Hunt book** The Calorie • Calorie measures energy > energy = heat > body burns heat with everything it does ◦ To replenish that energy, we eat food and the body metabolized chemicals (which also produces heat) • One unit of energy = kilocalorie (Kcal) 3 types of organisms need energy: 1.Autotrophic organisms a. Need light, water, and carbon dioxide b. These organisms are selfsufficient/make their own energy c. Ex/ bacteria, plants (convert the light, water, and carbon dioxide into sugars they need to survive) 2.Heterotrophic organisms a. Need energy taken from organic molecules in the environment (food) b. Can’t produce their own energy c. Ex/ animals 3.Chemosynthetic organisms a. Make their own energy though chemical reactions b. Ex/ microscopic bacteria Requirement for energy • BMR (basil metabolic rate) 1. Energy at rest, or 8 hours after sleep or 14 hours after a meal • Five factors of energy requirement 2. Basil metabolism i. Based on genetics which is why this varies based on the person 3. Digestion i. Aka specific dynamic action (SDA) ii. 10% of total requirement 4. Excretion i. Getting rid of waste in the body 5. Growth i. Very important as a child and becomes less and less needed as a person gets older 6. Activity i. Each person has control over the type/amount of activity they do Measuring Energy • Direct approach (aka direct calorimeter) ◦ Measures the energy of actual food with bomb calorimeter ◦ Bomb calorimeter measures how food breaks down (one chamber holds water and one holds food) • Combustible gas is added to burn the food and break down bonds ◦ Unit mass determines the nutrients that give energy to the body • Different units = conversion factor for mass to energy back to mass (used for macronutrients) • Allows you to calculate the energy in a food • Indirect approach ◦ Focuses on public information like charts, statistics, and tables to find out what the energy requirements are ◦ This is not as accurate because you are either being compared to a large group of individuals or certain people and many people don't match the general reference point Weight Control • Trying to have the ideal body mass ◦ With ideal body mass, there is a lower risk for disease ◦ Gets harder as we get older and growth and development stages are over ◦ When fat cells get the biggest that they can get, and the energy intake is still growing, then more fat cells are created (multiplication of cells) • National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) ◦ Investigate long term weight loss and upkeep ◦ Look into what about a person with successful weight loss possesses or did to try and find the secret Energy Balance • Controlling weight is having "Optimum energy balance" ◦ Intake and output of calories are the same ◦ If energy intake is greater = weight gain ◦ If energy output is greater = weight loss Activity Expenditure • Intake is easy to determine, but output is harder • Factors that affect energy expenditure: ◦ Body mass ◦ Age ◦ Activity ◦ Temperature ◦ Pregnancy ◦ Location ◦ also, different based on what you are doing Nutrition and Fitness • The kinds of nutrients that you need depend on what activity you are doing • Carbohydrate ◦ 60% of daily calories should be carbs ◦ Primary energy source for highintensity exercise ◦ Energy from carbs come from blood glucose ◦ Carbs are important if you exercise a lot ◦ Liver glycogen • Turns into glucose which then goes into the bloodstream to keep blood glucose (energy source for brain) levels normal Nutrition for Low to Moderate Activity Levels • Fats (two forms) ◦ Fatty acids in adipose tissue ◦ Fatty acids in muscle tissue • Amino acids from protein are the most important for muscles • Protein is used for energy but only if other levels are insufficient • Muscle protein becomes energy by breaking down amino acids Energy Before, During, and After Exercise • Small amount of carbs before exercise gives muscles immediate energy • Protein and carbs before exercise bigger increase in muscle glycogen synthesis than with just carbs • Fattier foods take a longer time to digest • Eating carbs within 3045 minutes of exercise is recommended Fluids Before, During, and After Exercise • Water is extremely important during physical activity • Sodium and chloride are the electrolytes that we lose when we sweat ◦ Electrolyte imbalance can lead to cramps, nausea, etc. • Heat stroke ◦ Build up of heat in your body ◦ A warning sign is not sweating in situations where you should be • Daily fluid is determined by dividing body weight in 2 to equal the number of ounces you needed Burning Calories • Exercise means you use energy and burn calories • Exercise isn’t the most efficient way to lose weight
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