ANEQ 328 Fondations In Animal Genetics Week Two Notes
ANEQ 328 Fondations In Animal Genetics Week Two Notes ANEQ328-001
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Nella Weber III
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Destinee on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ328-001 at Colorado State University taught by Milton Thomas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Foundation in Animal Genetics in Animal Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Two 1/26/16-1/28/16 Introduction to Animal Breeds Phylogeny of Animals o Phylogeny The evolutionary history of genetically related species. Historically based on phenotype. o Phylogenetics The evolutionary history of genetically related species. Now based on genotype. o Animals are separated by breeds (species). KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies Important Mammals To Know o Artiodactyla (Even-toed ungulates—sheep, goats, pigs) o Carinvora (Carnivores) o Perissodactyla (Horses) o Rodentia (Rodents) Important Animal Breeds To Know Animal Genus Species Common Scientific Name Cattle (Angus/Holstein) Bos Bos taurus Bovine Cattle (Brahman) Bos Bos indicus Bovine Domestic Sheep Ovis Ovis aries Ovine Domestic Goat Capra Capra aegagrus Caprine Alpaca Vicugna Vicugna pacos Camelid Llama Lama Lama glama Camelid Pig (Swine) Sus Sus scrofa Porcine Chicken Gallus Gallus gallus Avian Domestic Turkey Meleagris Meleagris gallopavo Avian Horse (Wild) Equus Equus ferus Equine Horse (Domestic) Equus Equus caballus Equine Donkey Equus Equus africanus Equine Animal Population Terms o Species A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. o Breed A race of animals within a species. o Breed Association A non-profit organization that controls the registry of a specific breed. The board of directors is chosen by the people who hold a membership for that specific association. o Open Registry A registry in which animals may be registered even if their parents or earlier ancestors are not registered. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Two 1/26/16-1/28/16 o Closed Registry A registry in which all parents of an offspring (and offspring) must be registered and no other breed besides that specific breed (i.e. Thoroughbred) can be registered to make sure that breed maintains a purebred linage dating all the way back to its founder stud. o Breed Standard A set of guidelines for what or how a breed of animal should look like, work or perform. o PopulationBreedHerd=Flock=Remuda Population The total amount of a group of organisms or species Breed A race of animals within a species. Herd A social grouping of animals of the same breed. Ex. Cattle Flock A social grouping of animals of the same breed. Ex. Sheep Remuda A social grouping of animals of the same breed. Ex. Horses Characterizing Breeds o Geographical Classification Classifying a breed’s unique characteristics based on graphical location. o Biological Classification Classifying a breed’s unique characteristics based on genetics and behavior/purpose. Parental Trait Traits such as carcass size, the amount of growth of the animal, and the amount of muscle the animal has. Ex. Duroc Pigs Ex. Belgium Blue Cow Maternal Trait Traits such as the mothering ability and milking ability of the animal. Ex. Yorkshire Ex. Holstein Dual Purpose Breeds When an animal possess both parental and maternal traits. Ex. Beef Persian Ex. Shorthorn ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Two 1/26/16-1/28/16 Function/Performance Breeds Breeds of animals that are known for their production of goods such as hair/wool or service. Ex. Horses used to round-up cattle. Ex. Cashmere Goat produces mohair. Terms Used to Describe Animals o Purebred A breed of animal that consists of only one breed or line. o Linebred A breed of animal that consists of an inbred (the mating of closely related individuals) line. o Crossbred A breed of animal that consists of having parents from two different breeds. o Admixed A breed of animal in which random mating occurs, leading to mixed breeds. o Mixed-Breeds A breed of animal that is made up of two different breeds. o Composite (Synthetic) Breed A breed made up of two or more breeds in order to achieve hybrid vigor. o Hybrid Vigor (Heterosis) An increase in performance of hybrids over that of purebreds most noticeably in traits like fertility and survivability. o Mongrel An animal that isn’t categorized into a particular breed due to random mating, which leads to that specific animals progeny not better off than when you started. o Wild-Type The original genetic material of a breed. Prominent Bovine (Cattle) Breeds o Holstein Bos taurus Origin: Europe Maternal o Angus (Black and Red) Bos taurus Origin: Europe Maternal o Hereford Bos taurus Origin: Europe Maternal ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Two 1/26/16-1/28/16 o Simmental Bos taurus Origin: Europe Dual Purpose o Charolais Bos taurus Origin: Europe Parental o Gelbvieh Bos taurus Origin: Europe Parental o Limousin Bos taurus Origin: Europe Parental o Saler Bos taurus Origin: Europe Maternal o Shorthorn Bos taurus Origin: Europe Dual Purpose o Brahman Bos indicus Origin: India Maternal o Nellore (Largest Breed of Cattle) Bos indicus Origin: India Maternal o Brangus Bos taurus Origin: United States Maternal o Santa Gertrudis Bos taurus Origin: Texas Parental o Beefmaster Bos taurus Origin: Texas Dual Purpose ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Two 1/26/16-1/28/16 Prominent Ovine (Sheep) Breeds o Columbia Parental o Suffolk Parental o Hampshire Parental o Merino Maternal o Rambouillet European Dual Purpose o Dorper o Finn Maternal o Romanov Maternal Prominent Caprine (Goat) Breeds o Boer Dual Purpose o Spanish Parental o Nubian Maternal o Alpine o Angora Maternal o American Cashmere Maternal Prominent Equine (Horse) Breeds o Quarter Horse o Thoroughbred (Jockey Club) Parental o Arabian o Tennessee Walking Horse o Clydesdale Parental Prominent Swine (Pig) Breeds o Hampshire o Chesterwhite o Landrace Parental o Duroc Parental ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Two 1/26/16-1/28/16 o Meishan Maternal o Pietrain Parental Prominent Dog Breeds o Labrador Retriever o German Shepherd o Beagle o Golden Retriever o Yorkshire Terrier o English Bulldog o Boxer o Poodle o Dachshund o Rottweiler Prominent Cat Breeds o Persian o Maine Coon o Siamese o Exotic o Abyssian o American Shorthair Composites o A breed of animal that is made up of two or more breeds designed to retain heterosis in future generations without crossbreeding and being maintained as a purebred. Plant Genetics o Cultivar Is a plant or grouping of plants selected for desirable characteristics that can be maintained by propagation. Like the different breeds in animals, plants too have many different varieties. Norman Borlaug Known for the renowned research in wheat. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Two 1/26/16-1/28/16 Genomes and Cytology Genomes o Karyotype An image of a cell’s genetic material through the mapping of chromosomes. o Genome All the genetic material of an animal or population. o Haploid When cells have half the number of usual chromosomes. Gametes (sperm and egg cells) are the only haploid cells in the body that will contain a half of a set (1 of each chromosome) of chromosomes. o Diploid When cells have a complete set (2 of each chromosome) of chromosomes. Somatic Cells which is any cell in the body excluding gamete cells (sperm and eggs cells) that contains a full set of one’s chromosome. Animal Genomes o Each animal genome is composed of haploid autosomes and sex chromosomes (X or Y). Animal The Number of The Number of Chromosomes a Chromosomes a Haploid (Gamete) Diploid (Somatic) Cell Has Cell Has Horse (Equine) 32 64 Cattle (Bovine) 30 60 Sheep (Ovine) 27 54 Pigs (Porcine) 19 38 Dog (Canine) 39 78 Cat (Feline) 19 38 Human 23 46 Cytology o DNA(Transcription)RNA(Translation)Protein Ribosome The place in which protein synthesis takes place. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum An organelle that doesn’t contain ribosomes and synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates, detoxifies the cell of drugs and poisons, and stores calcium ions. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum An organelle that contains membrane bound ribosomes and makes secretory proteins, creates membranes for the cell, ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Two 1/26/16-1/28/16 and assembles and transfers proteins to the Golgi apparatus. Golgi Apparatus An organelle in which it is active in the synthesis of modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products. Mitochondria An organelle in which where cellular respiration occurs and ATP is produced. Contains maternal DNA Nucleus Where ribosomes are produced and where DNA is stored. Intro to Genome and Within o Genome All the genetic material of an animal or population. o Chromosome Highly condensed strands of DNA and protein. Telomere A special nucleotide sequence at the end of each chromosome that postpones the erosion of genes near the end of DNA molecules. Centromere Where the two chromatids are most closely attached. Acrocentric A chromosome in which the centromere is either missing or is located at the very bottom of a chromosome. All bovine chromosomes as well as some equine chromosomes are like this. o Chromatid An individual chromosome. o Chromatin A complex of DNA and protein that condenses in chromosomes during cell division. Euchromatin Important genetic information needed in order for the organism to physically function. Heterochromatin As far as we know, genetic information that isn’t useful. o Locus The location of a gene on a chromosome. o Alleles Different versions of a gene. o Gene A part of a chromosome that contains the information to make 1 protein. Also known as units of heredity. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week Two 1/26/16-1/28/16 o DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a double stranded molecule that contains genetic information (a blueprint) to make proteins.
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