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Chapter 2- Pt. 1 Anatomy of Speech & Hearing

by: Kenzie Rattan

Chapter 2- Pt. 1 Anatomy of Speech & Hearing SPHS 3025

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Anatomy > SPHS 3025 > Chapter 2 Pt 1 Anatomy of Speech Hearing
Kenzie Rattan
GPA 3.75

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Chapter 2- Pt. 1
Anatomical Bases of Speech and Hearing
Janis Deane, Shannon Presley
Class Notes
Anatomy of Speech & Hearing
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Rattan on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPHS 3025 at University of North Texas taught by Janis Deane, Shannon Presley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Anatomical Bases of Speech and Hearing in Anatomy at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
5 Systems of Speech Production: -Nervous System: sensory & motor control of structures involved in speech. -Respiratory System: passageways & tissues involved in gas exchange w/ the environment. -Phonatory: involves voice production. -Articulatory/Resonatory: involves shaping of speech sounds. -Auditory: receives & processes auditory stimuli. Building Blocks of the Nervous System: Two parts of the nervous system- *Central Nervous System- brain & spinal cord *Peripheral Nervous System- spinal nerves & cranial nerves Neuron- *Nerve cell in both PNS & CNS. *Communicate information between the environment & the brain. *Afferent processes- receiving or sensing information. *Efferent processes- activating muscles & glands. Anatomy of the Respiratory System- Respiration: exchange of oxygen between an organism & its environment. *Oxygen is brought into the body (lungs), through inspiration. *Waste products are eliminated from the body (lungs) through expiration. *Power source for the voice. Boyle’s Law: Volume of a container increases; air pressure w/in the container decreases. *Volume decreases, then pressure increases. *Air flows from regions of low pressure. *Atmospheric pressure is higher than alveolar pressure (pressure in lungs) that we inhale; when alveolar pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure, we exhale. Skeletal Support- -Vertebral column -Ribs & rib cage -Pectoral girdle -Pelvic girdle Respiratory Tract- -Nasal cavities -Oral cavity -Pharynx -Larynx -Trachea -Bronchi -Lungs *Alveoli Respiratory Muscles- -Inspiration -Expiration Skeletal Support- Skeletal Support for Respiration- *Posteriorly by the vertebral column. *Anteriorly by the sternum & cartilages. *Laterally by the ribs *Superiorly by the pectoral girdle *Inferiorly by the pelvic girdle Vertebral Column- *Cervical *Thoracic *Lumbar *Sacral *Coccygeal Cervical Vertebrae- supports the head *C1 Atlas: allows us to nod our head “yes” *C2 Axis: allows us to nod our head “no” *C3-7 Major Landmarks for Cervical Vertebrae: *Spinous process *Transverse process *Vertebral foramen *Corpus *Transverse foramen *Facets- grooves where bones articulate or come together Thoracic Vertebrae- holds the rib cage & protects heart & lungs. *T1-T12 *Base of the respiratory framework *Point of attachment for ribs Major Landmarks for Thoracic Vertebrae: *Spinous process *Transverse process *Vertebral foramen *Corpus *Facets- costal Lumbar Vertebrae: bears body weight *L1-L5 *Larger than thoracic & cervical vertebrae *Receive stress during lifting & walking *Point of attachment for back & abdominal muscles Major Landmarks for Lumbar Vertebrae: *Spinous process *Transverse process *Vertebral foramen *Corpus *Facets- articular facets Sacrum- connects the spine to hipbones. Coccyx- composed of the fused coccygeal vertebrae. Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle- *Comprised of the clavicle & scapula *Clavicle attaches to the sternum *Clavicle & scapula articulate to support the shoulder Pelvic Girdle- *Made up of the ilium, sacrum, pubic bone, & ischium. *Provides a strong structure for attaching the legs to the vertebral column. *Ilium- the body part that sticks out when you put a kid on the side of the hip. Ribs- Four main parts: *Head *Neck *Shaft (body) *Angle Rib Cage- *7 true ribs (attach at both ends) *3 false ribs (do not attach to sternum directly) *2 floating ribs (do not connect at the front) Sternum- Three parts: *Manubrium- 1 rib attaches/clavicle attaches *Body or Corpus- true ribs attach *Xiphiod Process- muscle attachment Respiratory Tract- -Upper Respiratory Tract: -Nasal Cavity- Air comes through. -Oral Cavity- Air can come through. -Pharynx- Air travels through voice box; air passes through. *When we breathe, the vocal folds are open. *Pharynx sits on top of the trachea. -Lower Respiratory Tract: -Trachea: “windpipe” *Flexible tube composed of 16-20 hyaline cartilage rings. *Allows for air to move in to & out of the lungs. *Epithelial cilia line the trachea to help in the removal of pollutants. *Runs from inferior part of larynx until it bifurcates into main bronchi. -Esophagus: *Lies posterior to the trachea. *Long collapsed tube that is involved in the digestive system. -Bronchi: *Trachea bifurcates to form the left & right main or primary bronchi. *Main bronchi divide into lobar or secondary bronchi. *Lobar Bronchi- Divide further into segmental or tertiary bronchi. *Segmental Bronchi- Divide further into bronchioles. *The right bronchi work with the lungs. -Lungs: *Porous & spongy *Highly elastic *Left lung has two lobes- superior & inferior *Right lung has three lobes- superior, middle, & inferior Alveolar Ducts, Alveolar Sacs, Alveoli- -Alveoli: *Located at the end of the bronchioles. *Where true respiration occurs. *Made of VERY thin membrane permeable to oxygen & CO2. Gas Exchange in the Alveolus- *Each alveolus is supplied w/ blood for gas exchange by more than 2,000 capillaries. *Type 1 Pneumocytes- directly involved w/ gas exchange. *Type 2 Pneumocytes- support of membrane w/ little involvement w/ gas exchange. Pleura- Continuous with the thoracic cavity. *Lungs are completely covered w/ pleural lining. *Two types of Pleurae- -Visceral Pleura: Inner layer of pleura covers each lung. -Parietal Pleura- Outer layer, lines inner surface of thoracic cavity. *Pleurae are linked through a fluid filled space- pleural space. Mediastinum- *The heart lies in the mediastinum or middle space of the thorax. *This space helps protect the heart. *Pericardium: the membranous sac enclosing the heart. Respiratory Passageway Protection- *First line of defense- nostril hairs *Moist mucus membrane in upper respiratory system -Goblet cells secrete lubricant to trap pollutants. *Second line of defense- Epithelium covered w/ cilia line the passageway from the nose to the beginning of the bronchi. *Third line of defense- Lymphatic system eliminates smaller particles not filtered by cilia. *Warming & humidifying of air in the passageway protects the lungs.


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