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GPH210 Week 03 Note

by: Phoebe Chang

GPH210 Week 03 Note GPH 210

Marketplace > Geography > GPH 210 > GPH210 Week 03 Note
Phoebe Chang
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About this Document

Communities and Ecosystems
Society and Environment
Elizabeth Larson
Class Notes
geography, Ecology




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GPH 210 at a university taught by Elizabeth Larson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
GPH210CommunitiesandEcosystems SpringSEMESTER2016 Professor:Dr.ElizabethLarson EliteNotetaker:Phoebe( 1. The Web of Life ○ Numerous cross-over throughout the system ○ Complex connection between biotic and abiotic ○ Depend on each other like a web 2. Competition for Shared Resources ○ The order of our systems ■ Individual → Population → Community → Ecosystem → Biome → Biosphere ○ Ecological Community ■ A specific area where a web of life interact with each other ○ Different types of competition ■ Intraspecific competition ● Limited resources shared/fought by same specie ● E.g. Frogs fighting for a fly ■ Interspecific competition ● Limited resources shared/fought by different species ● E.g. Frog and turtle both fighting for a fly ● Competitive exclusion principle a. Two species fighting for essential resources and cannot coexist, one specie will eventually die out ■ Forest competition ● Trees all fighting for water and soil nutrition ■ Exploitation Competition ● Successful competitors take up resources more efficiently ● Often occur in desert ■ Interference Competition ● Aggressively competing with each other for dead remains killed by lions with territorial behavior ● E.g. hyenas, jackals, vultures ○ Niche ■ Ecological niche ● The role of an organism in the ecosystem 1 ● Not just physical habitat but also the interactions with others ■ Fundamental niche ● The range of environmental conditions needed to support a certain specie ● E.g. temperature, PH, food, water, ■ Realized niche ● The range where an organism exists because of competition ● Smaller than fundamental niche due to constraints of competition ■ Niche Differentiation ● Competitors can coexist due to division of fundamental niche ● Division of resources ● E.g. Warblers in evergreen forest ● (eating different portions of forest canopy, divide the tree into different portion to live in) 3. Herbivory, Predation and Parasitism ○ Consumers ■ Feed on living organisms ○ Herbivores ■ Feed on plants ■ Coevolution ● Adaptation to plants evolutions (thorns, irritating hairs, toxic chemical, distasteful) ● Specialized digestive systems ● Detoxify plant chemical systems ● E.g. Monarch butterfly-milkweed relationship ○ Predators ■ Hunt, kill and eat their prey ■ Predators tend to have different species of preys ■ Giant Filter Feeders ● Filtering plankton from the water by opening the expandable mouths and forcing water through upper teeth ● E.g. Blue whale ■ Prey Switching ● Focusing on the most abundant prey specie ● Ensure no prey will extinct ● Provide predator steady food supply ■ Defending Predators ● Natural selection evolve preys with special body structures ● E.g. Imitate nonfood parts of the environment (looking like sticks, leaves, etc) ○ Parasites ■ Food on living host for nutrition ■ Simple life cycles ■ Coexisting with the host 2 ■ Vectors ● Carry parasite but not affected by it ● Spreading the parasite at the same time ■ Hosts ● Increase of host = increase of parasite ● Leads to disease spreading quickly (4 factors) a. Abundant hosts b. Accessible hosts c. Quick transmission rate of parasites d. Long life length of infected host e. E.g. medieval era 4. Mutualism and Commensalism ○ Symbioses ■ Interdependence between different species ■ Types of symbioses ● Host-and-parasites ● Mutualism ● Commensalism ○ Mutualism ■ Both species benefits from each other ■ E.g. Figs + Wasps / Ants + Bullhorn Acacia / Fungus-plant root + Most plants living in a prairie ○ Commensalism ■ Only one specie is benefited, the other is unaffected ■ E.g. Snails and Hermit Crab 5. The Flow of Energy in Ecological Communities ○ Energy Flow ■ The transfer and transformation of high-energy organic molecules ○ Trophic Levels ■ Based on food sources (who eat by who) ■ Primary producer → Primary Consumer (Herbivores) → Secondary Consumers (Carnivores) → Tertiary Consumer ■ Decomposer (Non-living matter eater) ■ Examples ● Producers: Phytoplankton (autotrophs) ● Detritivore: Earthworms / Millipedes (eat dead food) ○ Food Chain / Food Web ■ Chain: Feeding relationship from one specie to another ■ Web: Complex feeding relationship between different species ■ The more complex, the more stable the ecosystem is ○ Biomass Energy ■ The amount of energy within one living or dead organism ■ Trophic level efficiency 3 ● The higher one is on the trophic levels, the lesser energy it gets by eating the other ● Only ~10% energy is available to the next level ○ Keystone Species ■ Named due to the wedge-shaped keystone holding an arched structure together ■ Extremely important for the ecosystem’s stability; Removal can be destructive ■ Can be a plant or an animal ■ E.g. Trophic cascade ● Loss of carnivores = explosion of herbivore = disaster for primary producers 6. Disturbance and Community Change ○ Ecological Disturbance ■ Cause ● Fire, hurricanes, volcanoes explosion, logging, etc ■ Result ● Community loss for many/all species in a community ■ Legacies ● Soil, debris ■ Types of Succession ● Process of post-disturbance change in ecological community ● Primary succession a. Millennia needed for processing b. Started with bare rock typically (no resources, empty area) i. Glacial retreat ii. Volcanic eruption c. Pioneer species (earliest colonists) → Migration/Facilitation of new species → Climax Community (organisms perpetuate) ● Secondary succession a. 70–100 years needed for processing (faster) b. Started with the legacies left behind from the disturbances i. Soil ii. Seed bank iii. Wood debris c. Old-field succession i. Reforestation ii. Started at abandoned farm fields iii. One of the most carefully studied examples ● Cyclic succession a. Increase chances of disturbance b. Leads to cycles of change 4 c. Return time: average time between disturbances at a certain area d. Some ecosystems are maintained by cyclical succession i. E.g. Lodgepole Pine (requires fire to reproduce— open cone up to reproduce) ■ Importance of Succession ● Proximity to other systems (e.g. climate, local variations in terrain, composition of species surrounding) ● Human influences (e.g. gardening, deforestation, invading species— nuisance/invaders) 5


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