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A & P Week 2

by: Victoria Notetaker

A & P Week 2 BIOL 2311

Victoria Notetaker
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Detailed notes for 01-26 and 01-28 lectures
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Al Dahwi
Class Notes
BIOL 2311




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2311 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Al Dahwi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
01-26-16 The Human Body: An Orientation  Covered section 1.1 on 01-21 o Looked at definitions of anatomy and physiology o Feedback: Cardiovascular system 4 chambers with four valves that prevent backflow  Know an example of complementarity of structure and function. Valves mainly to prevent backflow causing unidirectional flow.  Announcements: o Your responsible to attend lab and get syllabus o Will review syllabus in lab and intro to lab safety o Lab exercises will begin Feb. 1 st o NO make-up lab exercises will be allowed, you must attend your scheduled lab. o If you are waitlisted you are not guaranteed ability to test just because you attend, without official enrollment. o You will be asked to leave if you talk or disrupt lecture.  Figure 1.1 Levels of structural organization (page 3) o Total of 6 levels st o Start with 1  1. Chemical: the atoms that combine to create molecules  2. Cellular: molecules make up organelles which make up cells  3. Tissue: combine several cells that are similar and perform the same function  4 major types of tissues o Epithelial o Connective o Muscle o Nervous  4. Organ: structure made up of at least 2 types of tissue (simple organs typically membranes cover in chapter 4)  Typically made up of all four types  Perform a specific function  Ex. The stomach (part of the digestive system) o Main function: mechanical digestion (crush material) o Made up of all 4 tissue types  Ex. Small intestine (digestive system) o Made up of 4 tissue types o Most important function: absorb nutrients from the broken down material o Secondary function: Chemical digestion of the food  5. System: combining a organs to make a group  Organs grouped need to have a common purpose o Ex. Digestive all organs used for digesting material 2  Digestive system includes: mouth, esophagus, stomach, etc.  6. Organismal: Combine all the systems and you get an organism “the human”  Figure 1.4- Interaction among the elements of a homeostatic control system (page 9)  Homeostasis: capability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even if external is unstable o Homeostatic mechanisms: communication mechanisms between components o 2 types Positive and Negative Feedback Mechanisms (Nervous system and Endocrine Systems)  Receptor: sensor that monitors environmental (outside & internal) changes  Stimulus: any change in external or internal environment, produces a sense that will be picked up by receptor  Sends input  Control center: tissue (brain and spine)  Analyze the info rec. from receptor  Determine set point o Set point: level or range at which variable should be controlled and maintained  Variable: any factor or condition that needs to be controlled/regulated  Ex. Body temp or blood pressure 3 o Ex. Set point for body temp in range to account for individualism (35-37)  Send output to correct effectors  Effector: 2 most important are muscles and glands o Negative Feedback Mechanisms: commonly associated with sudden changes  Ex. Cold weather when you walk outside o Positive Feedback Mechanisms: associated with infrequent events o MAJOR difference between Positive and Negative Feedback Mechanisms are their end results  Figure 1.5 Regulation of body temp by negative feedback mechanism (page 10) o Temp drop in environment trigger thermoreceptors o Thermoreceptors send input to the thermoregulatory center in brain (Hypothalamus) o Hypothalamus sends output to effectors (skeletal muscles) causing shivering to generate heat in order to maintain body temp.  End result: reduces effect of the stimulus  Result goes in opposite direction thus NEGATIVE o For temp increase o Same initial process o Hypothalamus sends output to the effectors (sweat glands) causing you to sweat in order to cool the body by means of evaporation. Liquid on skin converts to vapor by drawing excess heat (from blood) 4  End result in the opposite direction o Associated with nervous system: Neuronal Negative feedback mechanism  Additional Negative Feedback associated with endocrine system o Buy 6 candy bars and eat them o Stimulus: increase in sugar o Receptors: send input to the control center o Control Center: Pancreas sends output o Effectors: insulin  Will get an email from professor regarding exam containing a diagram of positive feedback mechanism for childbirth.  Figure 1.6- Summary of the positive feedback mechanism regulating formation of a platelet plug (page 11) o The platelets closest to damaged tissue will adhere and go through Release Reaction o Release Reaction: releasing aggregating chemicals that will attract additional platelets  Process continues until platelet plug is complete. o END Result: goes in the same direction as the stimulus.  Stimulus causes platelet attachment and the resolution is to continue the attachment of platelets until the clot in complete.  NEXT CLASS: Chapter 4 5 01-28-16 Chapter 4 Tissue: The Living Fabric  Announcements: o Don’t leave a personal letter at the podium o CYA (Cover your self): protect your personal info by emailing or handing it to her in-person  Tissue: A group of similar cells performing a common function  4 types: Epithelial, connective, (muscle & nervous will be discussed later in semester o Epithelial st  1 discuss forms:  Lining & Covering o Outermost layer of skin (covering) o Lining of stomach (internal part of cavity so lining)  Glandular o Makes up most of our glands  Figure 4.1 Overview of four tissue types (pg. 116)  2 nddiscuss general characteristics (four):  #1 Polarity:  Showed a drawn diagram: Cavity Basal surface “connected surface” Apical surface “free surface” 6  Figure 4.2 Classification of epithelia (pg. 118) o Apical surface: upper free surface exposed to external environment of body or organ cavity (inner or outer)  Smooth  Can have modifications that cause it not to be smooth  Microvilli: microscopic finger-like projections rom apical surface o Figure 4.4 Goblet cell (pg. 124) o Increase surface area  Digestive system: needs huge surface area to absorb nutrients  Cilia: microscopic hair-like projections from apical surface o Figure 4.3 Epithelial tissues (pg. 120)  Respiratory system: millions of pathogens in air and cilia move up to the pharynx (throat) to expel them from the body through coughing reflex or sneezing. o Basal Surface: Linked or connected to underlying tissue  Basal lamina: the presence of a thin layer of non-living material (has no cells)  Product of the secretion of the epithelial cells 7 nd  2 characteristic: Specialized Contacts o Lateral contacts: cells are connected to each other  2 major types:  Tight junctions  Desmosomes rd  3 characteristic: avascular (non-vascular: does not have a blood vessel for nutrition) but innervated (supplied by nerve vessels) o Each and every epithelial tissue is ALWAYS resting on connective tissue for supply of nutrition from blood supply of the connective tissue (diffusion) o Dependent on the nutrients from connective tissue  Referred to figure on the projector: Basal Lamina Basement Reticular Lamina Membrane  Reticular lamina: made up of reticular fibers  Basal + reticular lamina= basement membrane  Basement membrane significance: o defines boundary of epithelial tissue 8 o Also filter for what nutritious material will diffuse from connective tissue  4 characteristic: regeneration- ability to create new cells through cell division o Friction leads to damage and loss of epithelial cells o Ex. Lining of stomach destroyed by friction and acidic breakdown.  Cells replaced through cell division Classifying Epithelial Tissue (Keep in mind need to classify with both criteria together)  Criteria: o # of layers of cells  Simple: 1 layer of cells  Stratified: More than 1 layer of cells o Shape of cell:  Squamous: flat  Cuboidal: cube-like or box-like  Columnar: column-like, elongated Practice:  Figure 4.3 Simple Squamous epithelium (pg. 119) o How many layers: 1 o Shape: flat  Simple Squamous o Think of location/function: not thick so not good for protection 9  Air sacs of lung: thin cell allows for fast rapid gas exchange  Figure 4.3 Simple Cuboidal epithelium (pg. 119) o How many layers: 1 o Shape: cube-like  Simple Cuboidal o Think of location/function: mainly tissue found in glands  Kidney tubules: allows for space for synthesis of different materials like hormones  Figure 4.3 Simple Columnar epithelium (pg. 119) o How many layers: 1 o Shape: column  Simple Columnar o Think of location/function: common in digestive system  Function: elongated shape increases surface area allowing for absorption  Modifications when in digestive system: Goblet cell or mucous secreting cells (columnar can also contain microvilli to increase surface area)  Scattered throughout columnar cells  Excrete mucous (lubricant) to help prevent damage to cells  Modification in other systems: presence of cilia  Figure 4.3 Pseudostratified columnar epithelium (pg. 121) 10 o Looks like it is stratified (false impression of multiple layers: pseudo Latin ‘false’) because:  All cells are in contact with basement membrane  NOT all cell reach the apical surface  Nuclei of cells are not at the same level o How many layers: 1 o Shape: column  Pseudostratified Columnar o Think of location/function: common in respiratory system  Typically ciliated  Function: Variety of functions (not concerned at the moment)  Figure 4.3 Stratified Squamous Epithelium (pg. 122) o Where is basement membrane? o Layers: More than one o Shape (upper/outer most layer): flat  Cells between uppermost layer and basement membrane may not be the same  Stratified squamous 11


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