Week 1 - Chapter 1 Notes
Week 1 - Chapter 1 Notes PSY 260
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mariam Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Jill Kaplan in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
PSY Exam 1 Chapter 1 notes Definition of psychology: the scientific study of mental processes (internal) such as thoughts, feelings and perception & behavior (outward) such as observable, empirical and measurable. Definition of personality*: personality is organized, developing system within the individual that represents the collective action of that individual’s major psychological subsystems. 3 big questions: Who am I? How do people differ? What is my future? I. How and why people are different? Origins Characterology - the literary study of different personalities. Origins of how and why people are different. Theophrastus- student of Plato and Aristotle. Talks about flatterer and garrulous (talkative) types of persons. Humoural Theory: The attempt to find biological bases for individual differences 1 Four Types: Sanguine (even-tempered, calm; blood) Choleric (irritable; yellow-bile) Melancholic (depressed; black bile) Phlegmatic (low energy; phlegm) Hans Eysenck Theory of Personality 2 Contemporary: Assessment of personality Mental measurement The study of individual differences Definition of Personality – A system of systems Personality is the organized, developing, system within the individual that represents the collective action of that individual’s major psychological subsystems. Some psychological systems are: knowledge/guidance, self control, action implementation, motives & emotions. 3 Wundt’s definition: the sum of all the biological inherited character and the acquired character and tendencies. Others define: the individual differences definition emphasize that the proper study personality is the analysis of how people differ from another. Base on this theory: a. measure differences among people b. classify people according to these differences c. predict how these differences will influence their behavior. (The theory has disadvantage; it has single focus which is study of individual differences). Freud – believed in consistencies in personalities across all individuals. Everyone had an ego. Wilhelm Wundt – addressed issues as what is sensation, perception and learning. He says that smaller psychological system built into larger ones in a hierarchy of complexity. Middle level of complexity systems: motivation, emotion & intelligence Highest level – total development of psychical personality. Answers to the larger personal and social questions are found. Wundt’s views: personality is made of: sensation and perception, motives and emotion, & emotion & cognition. Personality’s job is to organize. Psychological mindedness: interest in who we are and why we do what we do. Refers to an interest in understanding relationships among psychological processes and how they influence a person’s life. Molecular-Molar Continuum(or Dimension): a dimension along which various scientific systems of study can be located, from those that are smallest to those that are largest. Molecular things – relatively small. Examples: sensing color orange, feeling envy, thinking apricot is fruit. These mental processes or events are small because they involve individual sensations (emotions and cognitions). 4 Molecular systems – - scientific study that is small; atoms & molecules Molar Systems - scientific study that are large. Ex: economy Moral psychological processes – are large & combine smaller processes. Ex: jealous of friend who has nice apricot. The Establishment of Modern Personality Psychology - two trends occurred: Consolidation – collecting what was then known about personality psychology Synthesis – integrating what was known into grand theories Wundt’s Personality Psychology Figure: I. Global trends of psychological systems – personality is collective function of major psych systems. Combines motives, emotions and cognition in various forms. II. Combinations among psychological parts Sensation and perception – recognizing the outline of orange apricot in painting Motives and emotion – want to behave well & honor friend Emotion & cognition – envy of friends paining of apricot III. Basic Psychological Parts Sensation – of an orange Perception – recognizing orange apricot Memory – of friends painting Emotion - envy Cognition – an apricot is a fruit Locating the Personality System The Molecular-Molar Dimension – personality as a global system made up of smaller psychological subsystems (Wundt) 5 The Internal-External Dimension – separate, private internal personality exists within the individual’s skin. Outside observers can only see our external experiences. Only an individual access his interior self. Personality operates internally but also operated by expressing itself in the external, ongoing social situations in which it finds itself. The Time Dimension – personality develops and changed over time. It is different during each life epoch. Sum up: personality is global system of smaller psychological systems. It is inside the person but expressed outwardly in the situation & developed form infancy to maturity. Field Of Personality Psychology A field of science consists of an organized group of individuals who study a common topic and add to what we know about it. Personality Systems Framework is a model for organizing the study of the field, Mayer 2015. Four topics are: What & where is personality? – foundation to understanding personality, its study and some major theories in the field What are the system’s parts? – parts of people’s personalities: their motives, emotions, relationship & other qualities. Personality part is a separate mental quality of mental function within a person. How is personality organized? – how does parts function and act together to bring about personality dynamics. Structural organization – stable divisions of personality system. Dynamic organization – major causal pathways that bring important consequences of mental functioning. 6 How does personality develop? – how personality system grows and changes over course of a lifetime. Personality Psychology Uses: personal assessment, selection and prediction. Glossary o Implicit Personality Theory: informal & unconscious system of beliefs an individuals holds about how his or her own personality operates & how other’s personality operate o Characterology: author writing series of short descriptions about different character types o Inner-Outter Dimension: dimension that separates the internal parts of personality from the external aspects of personality 7
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