ch 9 pt 3
ch 9 pt 3 RHM 321-001
Popular in Tourism and Hospitality Industry
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Cohen on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RHM 321-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mr. Alvin Niuh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Public Health at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Ch 9 pt 3 Understanding Travel Behavior Motivation for Pleasure Travel The Travel Decision Making Process o 1 : The decision to take a trip (Decisions to make prior to “trip commitment”) Do I have time, money, health, and interest to take a trip? How much time, money, and effort do I want to devote to this potential trip? Who will go with me and therefore need to be consulted in at least some of my decisions? Do I want to gather the info myself or do I want to utilize the expertise of others, such as a travel agent? nd o 2 : The Destination Decision (General) In general, where do I/we want to go? In general, what do I/we want to do on that trip? Given my/our time frame, what destinations are rd within the allowed travel time? o 3 : The Destination Commitment Decision (The decision involves a choice that is not easily changed) Which of the destinations that are most appealing to th me/us will I/we choose? o 4 : Trip Preparation Decision (Post-trip Commitment Decision) What specific day will I leave for the trip? How long will I stay in one place? Will I travel within a larger destination area (multidestinations), or will I stay in one place for the duration of the trip? What transportation mode will I use to get there? What components of the trip will I pay for or reserve in advance? Should I buy travel insurance? o 5 : During-Trip Decisions How will I get around the destination area? What routes will I take within the area? If not arranged in advance of arrival, what specific accommodations will I use each night? What activities and attraction will I participate in or attend? What factors make pretrip planning more likely or less likely? o o o o Dimensions of Travel o 5 basic dimensions: Distance Length of stay at destination Residence (origin) of traveler Purpose of travel A Focus on Travelers/Customers o Asking the Question - Why do tourists travel? o Who are they? o Why do certain groups of travelers seek particular holiday experiences? o What do they expect during their travel? 3 Main Source of Ideas addresses travel motivation o 1. Historical and literary accounts For the wealthy For religious reasons – pilgrimage The Grand Tour – educational New “world” exploration Industrialization, urbanizations, and improved transportation John Steinbeck, Ovid, Chaucer, Tennyson o 2. The Contribution of Psychological Theory What motivates humans? o 3. Current Market Research Practices What do they expect during their travel? Reason for Travel/Tourism Activities o Consumer Behavior The study of consumer characteristics and the process involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, and use goods and services to satisfy want and needs. The Need for a Theory o Theories (models) summarize and reorganize knowledge in an area. o Purpose: Provide a new perspective Forster prediction Specification of future direction for human action and research Features of a Good Theory of Travel Motivation o Needs 7 elements: 1. The role of the theory 2. The ownership and appeal of the theory 3. Ease of communication 4. Ability to measure travel motivation 5. A multimotive versus single-trait approach 6. A dynamic versus snapshot approach 7. The roles of extrinsic and intrinsic Motivation o Force within an individual that causes him/her to do something to fulfill a biological need or psychological desire. o Types of motivation: Intrinsic - Personal feelings of accomplishment Achievement, success, enjoyment External rewards are motivating factors Human Motives and Needs in Psychology Theory Theorist/Researcher Theoretical Motives or Needs Approach Emphasized S. Freud Psychoanalytic theory Need for sex, aggression. Emphasis on unconscious needs. Carl Jung Psychoanalytic Need to create and approach self-actualize Harry Sullivan Modified Need for acceptance psychoanalytic and love D.E. Berlyne Cognitive approaches Need to satisfy curiosity, seek mental stimulation Carl Rogers Humanistic Need for self- development A. Maslow Humanistic Hierarchy of needs Cohen & Taylor Sociological theory Need to escape, excitement and meaning Gordon Allport Trait theory Need to repeat intrinsically satisfying behaviors Clark Hull Learning theory Need to reduce tension Foundations For Understanding Tourist Motivators o 4 most well-accepted theories: (on test) (read more in book!!!!) 1. Push and Pull motivations 2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 3. Pearce’s leisure ladder 4. Plog’s Psychocentric- Allocatric Continuum Part of personality tests Push and Pull Motivations o “Pushed” (motivated) by the personality traits and individual needs and wants “I want to go (vs. staying home)” o “Pulled” (attract) by appealing attributes of travel destinations “Reason I’m going to … is because … “ Push and Pull Motivators o Push Desire for escape Rest and relaxation Fitness and health Adventure Prestige Social interaction Being entertained Enhance relationship Learning new things Novelty seeking o Pull Beaches Historic sites Recreation facilities Budget Ease of access Cultural resources Opportunities to increase knowledge, experience a different culture Maslow’s Theory of Needs Motivation o Self- actualization o Esteem o Love (belongingness) o Safety o Physiological Maslow’s o Physiological Tour packages that offer frequent rest stops Easily accessible food outlets in theme parks Sleeping shelters strategically located along the Appalachian trial for overnight visitors Externally Oriented Need for escape, excitement, curiosity Need for arousal, external excitement and stimulation Internally oriented Need for sex, eating, drinking Need for relaxations (manage arousal level) o Safety Reservation serviced provided at gov’t approved agencies or locations Cruise ships providing medical facilities/doctors Tour guide services provided in exotic or unfamiliar location Self=directed Need to reduce anxiety Need to predict and explain the world Other=directed Need for security o Belongingness Group tours with people having similar interest and backgrounds Group recognition gained by belonging to frequent- user programs Trips made to explore one’s ancestral roots Other=directed Need to reduce anxiety about others Need to affiliate Self=directed Need to give love, directions o Esteem Elite status in frequent-user programs such as gold, silver, bronze Incentive travel awards for superior company performance Flowers, champagne, and other tokens provided to guests in recognition of special occasions Other=directed Need for status Need for respect and recognition Need for achievement Self=directed Need for self-development Need for growth Need for curiosity mental stimulation Needs for mastery, control, competence Need for self-efficacy Need to repeat intrinsically satisfying behaviors o Self-Actualization Educational tours and cruises Trekking through Nepal, a personal challenge to one’s physical limits Learning the language and culture before travelling to another country Need for self-actualizations Need for flow experiences Leisure Ladder Model o Similar to Maslow’s theories o Focuses on behavior based on “tourist’s life cycle” o Closely resembles to career progression o o Fulfillment Concerned with feeling peaceful, happy, spiritually sound, and totally involved in the setting o Self-Esteem and Development Concerned with developing own skills and knowledge, how others view them o Relationship Seeking to build and extend their personal relationships o Stimulation Seeks to satisfy their personal stimulation and arousal levels; safe but not bored, exciting settings o Relaxation & Bodily Needs Involved in restoration, personal maintenances and repairs The Psychocentric – Allocentric Model o Psychographics – the measurement of personality, attitudes, and values from a marketing perspective o Personality – the manner by which a person’s thoughts and actions interact with and modify the conditions of his/her life o Allocentric – adventurous traveler o Psychocentric – less adventurous traveler (dependables) Prefer: Familiar travel destinations Commonplace activities at destination Relaxing sun and fun sports Low activity levels Driving to destination Heavy tourist accommodation, family style restaurants, souvenir shops Segmenting the Tourism Market o Market Segmentation – process of dividing a total market (heterogeneous) into groups of customers who have similar needs, wants, values, and buying behavior (homogeneous). o Key Word: Segmentation Approaches: by… o Geographic o Demographic o Psychographic Lifestyle (activities, interests, opinions) o Product/Service-related o Travel Habits and Preferences o Group vs Individual Travelers o Purpose of Travel Example: Business travelers: o Government o Self-employed o Private company o Nonprofit organizations Non-business travelers: o Vacationers o Visiting friends and relatives (VFR) o Family emergency Incentive travel – o Co-sponsored pleasure travel with all expenses paid and awarded to qualified employees as a bonus o Frequency of Travel The Segmentation Process o 5 Steps Lifestyle measures – measures daily living behavior o 4 areas: Activities Interests Opinions Demographics Values and Lifestyle (VALS) Model o 4 categories, 9 lifestyle segments Need driven: Survivors and Sustainers Outer-directed: Belongers, Emulators, Achievers Inner-directed: I-m-Me, Experimental, Societally Conscious Combined Inner- and Outer-Directed: Integrated o VALS change over time and circumstances Values o Shape lifestyles o Central to a person’s personality o Socially and culturally defined o 2 types of values: American Values o Self-respect o Security o Warm relationships o Accomplishments o Self-fulfillment o Being well-respected o Belonging o Fun, excitement, and enjoyment Learning o A change or modification in behavior as a result of experience o Fundamental human process of growth and development o Learning and Tourism: Psychology o The study of human behavior: thought, feelings, and actions of an individual o Psychology of tourism: Relates to individual travelers Makes decisions based on personal, social, and environmental factors Tourism as Behavior o Tourism is purposeful, planned and motivated behavior o Influenced by internal and external forces o Internal forces: Attitudes, values, perception, learning, personality, and motives Forces are changeable and controlled by the person o External forces: Social and family roles, social class, environmental conditions, reference groups, group culture and subculture Forces are beyond the control of the individual Internal Forces o Perception Is an active process Is selective Influenced by learning and past experiences Influenced by the context in which perception takes place o Environmental perception – applies to environment from all parts of life; neighborhoods, home, travel destinations, and tourism attractions o Social Perception – perception of other people (First impression) Elements of Perception o 3 fundamental elements 1. 2. 3. Attitudes o Intellectual, emotional, and behavioral responses to events, things, and persons which people learn over time o Affective component – emotional response to an object or process o Cognitive component – beliefs; assumed facts about an attitude target o Behavioral component – actual behavior or intended behavior o Stereotypes – o Persuasion – attempts to influence people How? Media, personal communication, advertising Effectiveness – dependent on the source or communicator Focus – meet basic needs of individual o Tourism Development – impressions form the bases for tourist decisions
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