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Chapter 2

by: Joey Ross
Joey Ross

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This is what is covered in chapter 2 and filled out notes
Lifespan Development
Shannon Sexton
Class Notes
Heredity Prenatal Development
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joey Ross on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDF 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Shannon Sexton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Human Development at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
• Heredity and Prenatal Development •   Chapter Two • Genetic influences are fundamental in transmission of • Physical traits • Tall/Short • Rolling the tongue • Ear lobes • Psychological traits such as intelligence • Activity level • Sociability • Anxiety • Schizophrenia • Depression • Dependence on nicotine, alcohol and other substances • Twins • Monozygotic (Identical)– twins which are the result of a single zygote (fertilized egg) • Identical Twins- 100% identical DNA • From the same fertilized Egg • 30% of blind births are twins • Women control the birth of twins Fertility drugs Previous in family • Splitting into two cell masses and becoming two individuals • Dizygotic (frateral) – two eggs are produced in the same month and they are each fertilized by a different sperm cells • Share 50% of DNA • 20% of population are left handed • 70% of twins are populated • Fertility drugs stimulate the ovaries, increasing the odds of several eggs being released at the same time. On average, 20% of women taking fertility drugs will become pregnant with more than one baby. • Ovulation – • As woman nears end of child-bearing years, ovulation becomes less regular, thus increasing likelihood of twins • Approximately 8.5% of couples are infertile. • Unable to get pregnant on their own • Secondary Infertility : Unable to have a second baby • Infertility problems with men: - LOW SPERM COUNT (most common) - Low sperm motility - Infectious diseases (sexually transmitted infections) - Overheating of the testes - Smoking – Leads to erectile disfunction • Infertility problems with women: • Irregular ovulation, include failure to ovulate and stress (Most Common) - Declining hormone levels related to aging - Obstructions or malfunctions of the reproductive tract. • Endometriosis 5-15% • Endometrium lining backs up in the fallopian tubes into the abdomen. • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome 20 % • Blocked Fallopian Tube 20% • Combination of fertility problems • Allergic to Sperm • Infertility Options • Artificial Insemination – sperm is collected and quick-frozen; sperm is injected into woman’s uterus at time of ovulation • Artificial insemination • Artificial insemination typically costs between $300 and $500 per attempt. • Typical success rate is 10 to 20 percent Five to ten attempts could be required. • Some patients never achieve a pregnancy through artificial insemination • In Vitro Fertilization – ripened ova are removed surgically from the mother and placed in laboratory dish; • Father’s sperm also placed in dish; one or more ova are fertilized and injected into mother’s uterus to become implanted. • In Vitro Fertilization national average cost is $12,400 • For women under 35, about 37 percent of cycles result in a live birth • Surrogate Mothers – mothers who bring baby to term for another women who is infertile; can be artificially inseminated by partner of infertile woman • It is actually illegal except four different states • Didn’t want to exploit women • Infertility Options Continued • A surrogate pregnancy typically costs about $60,000 • Health care • Missed wages for missed work • Psychological counseling • Maternity clothes etc. • Infertility Options Continued • Adoption – choosing to parent and form a family with child/ren delivered by a different mother • Infertility Options Continued • Costs for agency and private adoptions average between $10,000 and $15,000 • International adoptions are the most expensive, ranging from $7,000 to $30,000 • Conception • Conception refers to the union of an ovum and a sperm cell Fertilization requires an ovum penetrated w/in 24-48 hours after ovulation • Ova (Eggs) – women are born with all the ova they will ever have, about 400,000 • Women’s leucocytes fight off the sperm • Conception Continued • Sperm have to fight vaginal acidity, gravity, and swim against current coming from the cervix • If sperm survive, reach fallopian tubes 60–90 minutes after ejaculation • Once sperm enters, layer thickens and locks out other sperm • Prenatal Development • Normal gestation period 280 days • Divided into THREE PERIODS – • Germinal stage (first two weeks), • Embryonic stage (the third through the eighth weeks), • Fetal stage (third month through birth) • The zygote is the single cell that is formed when the sperm fertilizes the egg. The zygote divides multiple times, producing identical copies of itself. • Germinal Stage (4 Days) • Blastocyst – cells separate into groups that will become different structures, • Inner part of blastocyst has two distinct layers that form a thickened mass of cells called embryonic disk, these cells eventually become the fetus • Implantation may consist of bleeding • Embryonic Stage: • 3 week embryo • 8 week embryo • Embryonic Stage • Development follows *cephalocaudal (head to toe ) and *proximodistal (near to far) • Growth of the head takes precedence over growth of the lower parts of the body • One third of miscarriages occur during first three months • Embryonic Stage • Head and blood vessels form third week after conception •     Heart starts beating st • Arm buds and legs appear by end of 1 month • Nervous system and brain begins to develop • Embryonic Stage • Amniotic Fluid acts as natural air bag allowing embryo and fetus to move without injury • Amniotic fluid is "inhaled" and "exhaled" by the fetus. • It is essential that fluid be breathed into the lungs in order for them to develop normally. Ending topic for Quiz *** Placenta is a mass of tissue that permits the embryo to exchange nutrients with mother Placenta permits oxygen and nutrients to pass from mother to embryo and permits carbon dioxide and waste products to pass to the mother from the embryo • Fetal Stage • Lasts from beginning of third month until birth • Major organ systems formed at end of first trimester • Second trimester consists of further maturation and gain in size • 3 months • Fingers begin to open and close • Mouth will make sucking movements. In fact, if you prod your abdomen • The face is formed with a chin, high forehead and small nose. • The eyes are developed and although they are shut tight with sealed eyelids, they now show reflexive movements. • The ears are visible but are still small. • The nails on the fingers and toes are starting to grow • 3 Months Pregnant: • Physical symptoms include Additional 50% of blood • Fatigue • Sleeplessness • Frequent urination • Nausea • Constipation • Heart burn • Food aversions or cravings, headaches •     Dizziness • Month 6 • The baby's lungs are filled with amniotic fluid, and he has started breathing motions. • Can hear mom is she talks or sings. • Layers of cortex of the brain develop. • Baby has developed a strong grip and he can open and close his eyes in reaction to light. •     Vocal Cords are fully functional • Hiccups are common for baby as they practice swallowing • 6 Months Pregnant: • Feeling baby kick more, • Abdomen is aching and itchy as the ligaments stretch. • Heartburn • Headaches • Dizziness •     Nasal Congestions • Bleeding gums • Increased appetite • Varicose veins, hemorrhoids, itchy stomach, protruding naval, backache, skin changes, fuller breasts, carpal tunnel, tingly hands and feet, and clumsiness. Soft, downy hair grows on eyes and scalp • Lanugo is normally shed before birth around seven or eight months of gestation • It is sometimes present at birth. • Vernix is a cheesy like substance that covers your baby's skin. • Vernix helps protect the baby’s skin from amniotic fluid • Doctors have to scrub off after birth • Also it can be healthy for babies if mom was sick • Fetal Stage Continued • By 7 month fetus turns upside down toward delivery • Breached is when the baby is not upside down for child birth • It can prolapse the umbilical cord • Cause head and shoulders to get stuck • Fractures th • Doubles in weight by end of 7 month • 90% survive if born at end of 7 month and given quality care • Fetal Stage • Fetal movements are noticeable during middle of 4 month th • At 29–30 weeks fetus moves limbs vigorously th • Fetus gets cramped as it grows, become less active during 9 month • Chromosomal Abnormalities Down’s Syndrome • Caused by extra chromosomes of the 21 pair, resulting in 47 chromosomes 1/900 live births • Characteristic features • Rounded face • Protruding tongue • Broad, flat nose •     Lower Life expectancy, average age 55 • Life expectancy in US. Is 78.4 • Mental retardation (low IQ, ~20-80) • IQ: 98-115 • Genetic Abnormalities Phenylketonuria (PKU) • Enzyme disorder affecting 1 child in 8,000 • Cannot metabolize an amino acid called phenylalanine; • Builds up in body and impairs functioning of the ______________________________________________ • Results are mental retardation, physical problems • Cystic Fibrosis • Caused by recessive gene • Approx. 30,000 Americans have disorder, 10 million more are carriers (1 in 31 people) • Children suffer from excessive production of thick mucus that clogs the pancreas and lungs. • Most victims die of respiratory infections in their 20’s • Huntington’s Disease • Inherited disease that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain. • Affects 1 in 18,000 Americans. • Uncontrollable muscle movements, loss of cognitive function and personality change. • Genetic Counseling and Prenatal Testing • Genetic counselors compile information about a couple’s genetic heritage to explore if their children will have a genetic abnormality • Prenatal testing can indicate if the embryo or fetus is carrying genetic abormalities • Amniocentesis • Performed on mother 14–16 weeks gestation • Syringe withdraws fluid from amniotic sac; contains cells sloughed off by fetus • Cells separated, grown in culture and examined for chromosomal abnormalities • Chorionic Villus Sampling • Similar to Amniocentesis. • Carried out between the 9 and 12 week of pregnancy. • Catheter tube/Needle inserted through the vagina into the uterus. • Takes sample from the outer of the amniotic sac. • Ultrasound • Ultrasound waves are reflected by the fetus and computer uses the information to generate a picture of the fetus • Used to guide the syringe in amniocentesis • Used to track growth of fetus, detect multiple pregnancies, detect structural abnormalities • Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development: • Women should gain 25 – 35 pounds; • Inadequate weight gain increases likelihood of premature or low-birth weight baby • Teratogens – environment agents that are toxic the embryo or fetus; includes drugs taken by mother, lead, mercury • Examples: Cigarettes, alcohol, mercury, hot bath, heavy exercise, antibiotics • Toxemia • Toxemia is life-threatening and characterized by high blood pressure that may afflict women late in 2 ndtrimester or early in 3 trimester • Narcotics (heroine, methadone) easily pass placental membrane and cause fetuses to become addicted • Addicted newborns may have behavioral effects, motor delays, language delays •     Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development Continued • Marijuana contributes to lower fetal growth , low birth weight • Secondary marijuana smoke contributes as well; the greater the amount smoked or inhaled the greater the likelihood of fetal problems •     Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development Continued • Heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) • FAS babies are often physically smaller as well as have smaller brains ; facial features include widely spaced eyes, underdeveloped upper jaw, flattened nose; •     Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development • There is no safe amount of alcohol that can be consumed per day Some use of alcohol can result in fetal alcohol effects (FAE) • Pregnant women who consume as little as one or two drinks per day increase the likelihood of miscarrying or growth-delayed babies •     Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development Continued • Men who smoke are more likely to produce abnormal sprem ; • Babies of fathers who smoke have higher rates of birth defects, infant mortality, lower birth weights, and cardiovascular problems


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