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Week 3

by: Emma Notetaker

Week 3 NSCI 4510

Emma Notetaker
GPA 3.975

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About this Document

Notes from lecture and chapter 2 of the textbook
Biological Psychology
Dr. Colombo
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Biological Psychology

Popular in Neuroscience

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NSCI 4510 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Colombo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biological Psychology in Neuroscience at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 01/29/16
Sunday, January 24, 2016 Week 3 Systems Neuroscience I • Broadmann’s areas: 47 areas of the brain based on the cell types (cytoarchitecture) • Broadman used Nissl stains (which stain the endoplasmic reticulum - cell bodies) on the cortex in order to see where different cell types cluster 1, 2, 3: primary somatosensory areas (postcentral) • • 4: primary motor (precentral) • 8: frontal eye field • 17: primary visual cortex (occipital lobe) • 18/19: visual association cortices (extrastriate areas) • 41/42: superior temporal gyrus (audition) 43: inferior frontal and insula (gustatory - taste) • • 44: pars opercularis (part of Broca’s area and inferior frontal gyrus) • 47: pars orbitalis (part of inferior frontal gyrus) • Paul McLane: triune brain theory • we have an evolved brain that has 3 parts, which causes competition between the different areas (why sometimes we can’t decide whether to make the emotional or the rational decision) • some invest more thought to one area, and because our brains are plastic these connections are enhanced • 3 brains: • 1. reptilian brain - only has brainstem and basal ganglia • habits and motor functions 2. paleomammalian: emotion (developed limbic system) • • 3. neomammalian: rational decisions (neocortex) • association cortices: mostly prefrontal and posterior parietal • information (sensory) goes to sensory processing areas (most of Broadmann’s) and then brought together in these association areas • multiple sensory inputs, stored info, memory of past experiences horizontal brain section: • • 2 large nuclei visible • thalamus: posterior to basal ganglia • basal ganglia: anterior to thalamus • gray matter: cortex • white matter: axonal fiber systems brain development: • • starts off as neural tube • tube forms 3 bumps, which become: • prosencephalon: forebrain • telencephalon • isocortex or neocortex basal ganglia • • limbic system • diencephalon • hypothalamus • thalamus 1 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • mesencephalon: midbrain (STAYS midbrain, doesn’t develop after this point) • rhombencephalon: hindbrain metencephalon • • cerebellum • pons • myelencephalon • medulla • fiber tracts: association tracts: connect cortex to cortex in same hemisphere • • cingulum: in cingulate gyrus • arcuate fasciculus: language functions (connections between speech sound areas and motor output areas) • uncinate fasciculus • commissures: connects cortex in different hemispheres corpus callosum: continuous fibers • • projection fibers: connect subcortical to cortical levels • ascending and descending tracts • motor output and sensory input • ventricular system: • acts as shock absorber for brain and medium of exchange filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) • • continues up from central canal of spinal cord • bottom (closest to spinal cord) - 4th ventricle (in midline) • 4th ventricle becomes cerebral aqueduct, which connects to 3rd ventricle • 3rd ventricle splits into the 2 lateral ventricles • these project to all lobes • lined with choroid plexus (which secretes CSF) • vascular system: • carotid arteries: go up the left and right sides of the neck (front) • branch into external and internal carotid arteries • internal carotid artery: branches into anterior and middle cerebral arteries (supply about 2/3 or cerebrum) • connected to the vertebral arteries via the posterior communicating artery • connects to the posterior cerebral artery • vertebral arteries (left and right) fuse to form basilar artery • on the back of the neck • branches into the two posterior cerebral arteries - supplies about 1/3 of cerebrum • circle of willis - structure at base of brain formed by joining carotid and basilar arteries • blood supply made of arteries going TO the brain • supply to the whole brain from the 3 cerebral arteries • strokes: vascular damage • 3 areas on the circle of willis account for 90% of strokes (these are mostly where larger arteries become smaller vessels, which may account for the issues) • junction of cerebral and anterior communicating artery: 30% • junction of carotid and anterior/middle cerebral arteries: 30% • branches off the middle cerebral artery: 30% 2 Sunday, January 24, 2016 Systems Neuroscience II basal ganglia: • • components: • caudate nucleus • globus pallidus/putamen (form the lentiform nucleus) • amygdala • substantia nigra - cluster of cells that produce dopamine info from all over the cortex to striatum/globus pallidus then back to the cortex • • reciprocal loops throughout the basal ganglia • can be partially targeted by OCD, repeated pattern • known mostly as motor system • also cognition • connections: look at slide 5 • corticostriate projections • limbic system: curves through each hemisphere along basal ganglia • emotion and learning • components: • amygdala: emotional regulation and odor perception • hippocampus/fornix: learning and memory • stimulus and stimulus associations • parahippocampal gyrus: higher order sensory information and associations • cingulate gyrus: cognitive functions (attention) • olfactory bulb: smell • near hypothalamus: motivated behaviors emotional/visceral brain • inputs from all sensory modalities • outputs: • sympathetic activation • motor • endocrine • visceral • somatic • lesions can cause a type of docility • imaging techniques: • angiography: xray image of head taken after blood vessels filled with radiopaque dye through catheter • CT scans: x-ray absorption at several positions around the head • medium-resolution images • cheaper • MRI: higher resolution, reveals subtle changes • magnetic energy generates images to reveal structural details • protons in brain tissues line up in parallel • patients not exposed to xrays • PET: track radioactive substances to produce images of brain activity • radioactive chemical infected, and detectors find destinations • expensive, invasive • fMRI: reasonable speed and good spatial resolution • detects changes in blood flow to see which areas are active • subtraction technique 3 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • visualize functional brain activity • DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) - dissusion of water within tissue, lets you see orientation of fiber tracts within brain • optical imaging: visualize brain activity in which near-IR light is passed through scalp and skull • transcranial magnetic stimualtion: stimulation of cortical neurons through application of strong magnetic fields • magnetoencephalography: good temporal resolution • • measures magnetic fields produced by active neurons to see where brain is active • speed-accuracy trade off: high resolution is usually slower • cerebral cortex • 6 layers • layers alternate between granule cells and pyramidal cells I - few cell bodies (almost no neurons) • • glial cells • molecular layer • II: external, granular layer • dendrites extend to layer I • III: external pyramidal layer dendrites extend to layer I • • IV: internal granular layer • many neurons with many cell bodies • HIGH concentration of stellate cells • special processing • V: internal pyramidal layer • medium • large cells • many neurons with many cell bodies • VI: multiform layer • spindly shaped neuron • fusiform cells • stellate scells —> golgi II cells (local axons, process nearby) • glogi I cells: project long distances • allocortex: tissues with 3 layers or unaltered organization • pyramidal cells: most prominent neuron in cerebral cortex • in layers III and IV • apical and basal dendrites • cortical columns: vertical columns that constitute the basic organization of the neocortex • most synaptic interconnections are vertical - information processing units • nerves divided into 3 systems • spinal • 31 pairs • dorsal roots are sensory, ventral roots are motor • 8 cervical (neck) • 12 thoracic - trunk • 5 lumbar - lower back • 5 sacral - pelvic • 1 coccygeal - bottom 4 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • cranial • 12 pairs some sensory AND motor • • look at relative/anterior position in diagram • blue mostly sensory, pink/red mostly motor • 1: olfactory - smell • 2: optic - vision • 3. oculomotor - muscles that move the eyes 4. trochlear - muscles that move the eyes • • 5: abducens - muscles that move the eyes • 6. trigeminal - face, sinuses, teeth, movement of jaw • 7. facial - tongue, soft palate, muscles of face • 8. vestibulocochlear - inner ear • 9. glossopharyngeal - tase/throat movement 10. vagus - info from internal organs/their movement • • 11.spinal accessory - neck muscles • 12. hypoglossal - tongue muscles • sensory and motor on head and neck • never join the spinal cord • autonomic nervous system preganglionic nerves: innervate ganglia (aggregates of neurons) • • sympathetic: thoracic and lumbar • postganglionic: innervate the body • sympathetic: course throughout the boy • sympathetic nerves: chain throughout body • uses norepinephrine (accelerates activity) • parasympathetic: dispersed throughout • uses ACh (slows things down) • enteric: local network of sensory and motor neurons that regulates the functioning of the gut • brain features: • gyri: tissue ridges • sulci: furrows separating gyri • white matter: fiber tracts • gray matter: cell bodies and dendrites • CNS: • nuclei - groups of neurons • tracts - bundles of axons • PNS: • ganglia: groups of neurons • nerves: groups of axons • diencephalon: • thalamus: cluster of nuclei acting as a switchbox for directing sensory input • hypothalamus: vital functions • hunger/thirst • temperature • sex • controls pituitary gland - hormonal system regulation • midbrain: 5 Sunday, January 24, 2016 • tectum: • superior colliculi - visual inferior colliculi - auditory • • substantia nigra - release dopamine • red nucleus - communicates with motor neurons • reticular formation - sleep and arousal • cerebellum: convoluted for more surface area • motor coordination and control cognition • • 3 layers • Purkinje cells: fan shaped dendritic patterns • granule cells: small neurons • molecular layer: consisting of parallel fibers • pons: motor control and sensory medulla: transition from brain to spinal cord • • regulates breathing and heart rate • meninges protect brain: • dura mater-outer • pia mater - inner (on surface of brain) • arachnoid: surrounds brain in bath of cerebrospinal fluid 6


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