Medieval Art History Week 2 Notes
Medieval Art History Week 2 Notes 483
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aubree Broyles on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 483 at Fort Hays State University taught by Erica Bittel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Medieval Art History in Art at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Medieval Art History Spring 2016 Test 1 Notes Introduction to Medieval Art The Medieval Period and The Middle Ages The Middle Ages was a period of about one thousand years o Viewed by Renaissance scholars as a sort of interlude or period of decline o The period occurred after the times of Classical Greece and Rome and before the revival of learning which emerged during the Renaissance This period has also been referred to as the “Dark Ages” th The Medieval period began in the 4 century with the battle of the Milvian Bridge o Roman Emperor Constantine o The Christian monogram, the Chi Rho – on their shields The Medieval period ended in the 15 century with the discovery of the Americas by Portuguese navigators o Sailed the water with the Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ Chi Rho = Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ = The Early Christian Church and the Bible Followers of Christianity declared Jesus’ birth to be the beginning of a new era o Known as Anno Domini or AD o Today we refer to the time after Jesus’ birth as the Common Era or CE The Jewish scriptures form the foundation of what Christians call the Old Testament The central tenets of Christianity are contained within the New Testament o Gospels – Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John o Epistles - St. Paul’s letters to the newly-formed Christian communities o Acts of the Apostles - documents the establishment of Christianity as an organized religion o Book of Revelation - St. John’s description of the Apocalypse Vulgate = Latin edition of the Bible translated by Saint Jerome Early forms of Christian worship were very simple Jesus gathered with his apostles for the Jewish Feast of the Passover o When Jesus defined the bread and wine as his own body and blood, he established the sacrament of Holy Communion o Tituli = official Christian homes where members of the faith reenacted the Last Supper There were about 25 official homes in Rome where this happened – turned into a ritual after – this is how communion got started A more elaborate worship service evolved in the 4 century o The service was divided into 2 parts: Liturgy of the Word Open to the public Liturgy of the Eucharist Open only to initiates Transubstantiation – when the bread and wine miraculously become the flesh and blood of Christ Another important ritual in the early Catholic Church was the initiation ceremony of baptism o Like other Church rituals, it evolved into an elaborate, formal ceremony presided over by the head of the Christian community, the bishop o In baptism, the initiates symbolically “died” and were reborn in Christ Christians utilize two different types of time: Historical and Liturgical o The Western Christian liturgical year is based on Christmas (December 25 ) th o The Eastern Christian Orthodox liturgical year is based on Easter o Events in the Gospels are typically grouped into 3 “cycles:” The Marian (or Nativity) cycle – (Christmas events) The Public Ministry of Cycle – (the miracles Jesus performed) The Passion Cycle – (The death of Jesus) In the Early years of Christianity, rival religions influenced the development of the Christian faith o Religious cults incorporated music, incense, and sacred imagery into their rituals o Christians adopted many of these elements into the Mass to enhance the emotional power and immediacy of their worship, as well By the 3 Century, monotheistic cults and religions such as Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, and Sol Invictus (meaning triumphant sun), spread throughout the empire The influence of such monotheistic faiths on Christianity is evident in the following: o The designation of Sunday as the Christian sacred day o The use of December 25 to celebrate the birth of Christ Christianity became a major religion within the Roman Empire, and as a result, it needed an organized governing structure and a coherent philosophy o The church adopted the Roman imperial model – Provincial governments overseen by centralized rule – also had a tithe o And in an effort to appeal to the educated classes, Christians turned to Greek philosophy St. Augustine - West St. Gregory of Nazianzus - East The “Universal Soul” = believed that the soul could be in Earthly and spiritual realms Arch of Titus, ca. 81 CE, concrete and white marble, Rome Italy o Spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem, relief in the passageway of the Arch of Titus, ca. 81 CE, marble o Hadrian/Constantine Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum from the Arch of Constantine, ca. 130-138 CE, marble, Rome o o Tondi = Circular composition Classical vs. Medieval Art Greek artists observed nature and then attempted to create idealized representations Roman artists worked in a more realistic or naturalistic style Medieval art is characterized by a sense of expressionism and abstraction that is not necessarily related to visual appearances Christianity in the Roman Empire Emperor Septimius Severus was the first to officially acknowledge Christianity o Christians allowed to practice, but not the convert others Under Gallienus, Christianity became a “permitted religion” Diocletian required citizens to make sacrifices only to Jupiter, the Roman gods, and the deified emperors o Monotheistic Christians and Jew were imprisoned and often executed as martyrs for their faith Emperor Diocletian completely reorganized the governing structure of the vast Roman Empire o Devised a form of government called a tetrarchy or “rule of four” o Required that each Augustus, one from the East and one from the West, designate a subordinate and heir, both holding the title of Caesar o Eventually Constantine (a “Caesar” in the tetrarchy) gained control of both the western and the eastern parts of the Empire o Roman Empire West Augustus Maximian Caesar East Augustus Diocletian Caesar Constantine the Great from the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, 325-326 CE, marble, Rome o Arch of Constantine, 312-315 CE, Rome o o The style is changing in this time period – He is saying this is the art of the people – he is looking out at his people o Constantine absorbed power of past rulers by taking elements from other monuments and carving his own face on it – equating his reign with reigns of past emperors Hierarchic Scale ----- relative size = relative importance Christianity Under Constantine o In the year 313, Constantine issued the Edict of Milan Archetype of religious toleration It allowed Christians as well as the followers of other religious faiths, to practice whatever form of worship they chose Christianity Under Theodosius o The Pax Romana (Roman Peace) that existed under Constantine, dissipated upon his death When Theodosius became emperor in 379 CE, steps were once again taken to re-stabilize the Roman Empire Theodosius was determined to unify his subjects through religion Established Christianity as the sole religion of the empire Official art continues to represent the emperor in a god-like superhuman manner Missorium of Theodosius, 388 CE, Found in Estremadura, Spain o o We know he is important because he is the biggest, centered, and has a double halo (one glow around his head and the rounded arch above his head) o This is secular (not religions) Christianity Under Theodosius o Theodosius also established the Roman capital at Constantinople o At the same time, the city of Rome was experiencing political and economic decline Remained the administrative center of the Western Church To counter outside threats, the government in the West relocated from Rome to Milan Under the direction of the bishop, St. Ambrose And the capital later moved to Ravenna In the year 410 CE, Rome fell to the Gothic invaders Chapter 2 The Early Christian Period Jewish and Christian Art Before Constantine Both Christians and Jews separated themselves from the official Roman religious practices of the period – most notably, the worship of images of multiple gods As a result, the study of early Jewish and Christian art is dependent, for the most part, on funerary art Paintings and some sculpture have been found in underground cemeteries known as catacombs o Loculi = niches carved into the walls of the catacombs o Cubicula = small chambers used for funerary rituals Catacomb of Priscilla, 3 century, Rome o rd Cubiculum of the Veiled Lady, Catacomb of Priscilla (reproduction of ceiling). 3 century, Rome o “The Good Shepard” is in the middle Teacher and Pupils, Orant, and Woman and Child, Cubiculum of the veiled Lady, Catacomb of Priscilla, 3 century, wall painting in a lunette, Rome o rd The Good Shepard, Cubiculum of the veiled lady, Catacomb of Priscilla, 3 century, wall painting, Rome o Jonah is Vomited Out, Cubiculum of the Veiled Lady, Catacomb Priscilla, 3 century, wall painting in a lunette, Rome o rd The Sacrifice of Isaac, Cubiculum of the veiled lady, Catacomb of Priscilla, 3 century, wall painting, Rome o Jewish and Christian Art Before Constantine Palm leaf = victory Dove = the holy spirit Anchor = hope The cross was typically disguised as the mast of Jonah’s ship, an anchor, or as the Egyptian Ankh The fish was a symbol of Christ o The disciples as “fishers of men” o Baptism rd The Story of Jonah, 3 century, marble o rd Christ/Helios Mausoleum of the Julii, 3 century, mosaic, Vatican o - Vines are symbolic of Christ’s blood Sarcophagus of Junis Bassus, ca. 359, marble, Vatican o o This is significant because many people in this time couldn’t read, they used things like this to understand the stories in the bible o The carvers were concerned with 2 major themes: 1. The guarantee of salvation 2. The triumph of the Roman Christian church
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