New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) January 25-29, 2016 Notes

by: Gabrielle Ingros

HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) January 25-29, 2016 Notes HIST 1020

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 > HIST 1020 Donna Bohanan January 25 29 2016 Notes
Gabrielle Ingros
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the notes from the lectures given in class.
World History II
Dr. Donna Bohanan
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in World History II

Popular in History

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


Reviews for HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) January 25-29, 2016 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/29/16
January 25­29, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) ­­ World History II ­­ Dr. Bohanan INDUSTRIALIZATION  Most historians and technicians call this period (Industrial Revolution) the  “Industrial Evolution.”  There were many changes that took place during this  time.  Agricultural Revolution: an urban phenomenon, pre­dates the industrial  revolution, but helps fuel it o Europeans used to farm only enough for what they needed; their  techniques were very primitive. th o This changed in the early 18  century.  It started in England, but there  were many breakthroughs by the Dutch as well.  People began to  experiment with farming (saw influence of Enlightenment and scientific  theories on farming – had dramatic results).  English aristocrats began  getting involved in farming – it was fashionable for them to experiment on their land.  The results were dramatic.   Increases in yields – got more out of a single unit of land  Jethro Tull: Invented a seed drill that was a major  breakthrough (cut straighter lines and turned over the earth  in a more thorough way); seeds were now planted in a  straight row (“improved seed­ratio”)  They learned to fertilize in a more effective manner; they  added clay and fodder to it.  Nitrogen seeded crops (clover, alp alpha, etc.) o Planted turnips – made the land more productive  o Turnip Townsend: major proponent of growing  turnips, was an enthusiast/spokesperson for the  turnips (also helped with growing herds of animals)  Improvements in livestock – people began to exert control over  breeding  Towns used to have common pastures for their animals, but people began to breed animals on their own land.  They got bigger offspring as a result.  This put more protein in the  European diet.  Convertible Husbandry – takes something that was a  pasture and convert it to arable, which means you can plant and farm on it (animal droppings had fertilized it when it  was a pasture) – they switched between pasture and  farmland to utilize the soil’s fertility  There were major increases in agricultural productivity. January 25­29, 2016  Better food meant healthier people, more consumers.  Birth rates went up and death rates went down.  Demand increased with the increase of population. o “Demand always precedes a technological revolution.”  Industrialization: machine production, mechanization, shift of population from  countryside into towns (factories), new sources of power o Sources of power used to include livestock, water, and wind. o The big breakthrough was use of steam as a source of power.  James Watt perfected the steam engine around 1760 (was  originally created by thwcoming). o Iron industry – in the early 18  century their was an energy crisis (demand for English iron was too high)  Created an alternative energy source for smelting iron – coal   Pig iron was full of impurities and was brittle.  Henry Cort: “Puddling and Rolling” – process when you combine  smelted iron with coal, you stir it (makes carbon come to the top so it can be removed), then you roll it/squeeze it to remove any  impurities  This process eliminated pig iron.  It also allowed for the  ample production of steam engines.    The steam engine further helped the iron industry, the mining  industry, and the textile industry. o Textile industry – improvement in creation of cloth, thread, etc.  Scale of production increased dramatically  Hargreaves: created the Spinning­Jenny (helped to make thread  much faster)  Arkwright: created the Water Frame to help produce thread as well o Ceramic industry – production of dishes/china goods (Cox/Wedgewood)  Made better, more sanity dishes to eat off of (they used to eat off  of wood and other unsanitary things)  Helped improve the overall health of the population  The steam engine really had an effect on all of these industries.  It made  production more efficient and effective in each of these fields.  England is the world’s first industrial economy, that’s why it industrialized way  before the rest of the world. o England had so many natural resources that were perfect for  industrialization (iron ore, coal, etc.). o England had the financial means to industrialize.  It had a financial  structure that made loaning money to inventors and entrepreneurs much  easier.  A national bank was established to help with the loaning of  money. January 25­29, 2016 o England became a constitutional (limited) monarchy, which helped it grow economically.  Parliament reflected business interests, so government  policies tended to be pro­business/pro­middleclass. o England experienced a major transportation revolution in the 18  and 19   th century – they were able to move tremendous amount of materials and  finished products from point A to point D.  Canals: England had a lot of waterways, and they began to connect the waterways via canals.   Belgium was the first other country to industrialize ­> Germany ­> France ­> Italy  The industrial revolution created many social problems  Effects of industrial revolution: o Urbanization – there was a rapid growth in cities, the labor force moved  from the country to major towns and cities, half way through the century  just about half of the population had moved to the city, new cities were  born in the industrial zones o Environmental consequences – it is an environmental disaster, there are no regulations, so there is much air pollution (smoke), the cities were filthy,  people are drinking and doing drugs more than ever (Gin is cheap and  popular), pawn shops were prevalent (showed the amount of poverty),  rivers/waterways were polluted by sewage (finding safe water became a  huge problem), 1858 The Great Stink of London, everything smelled so  bad (especially the River Thames) o Housing problems – the cities didn’t have housing for the large number of  people moving in, people ended up living in dark/damp attics/basements  (entire families lived in one room), entrepreneurs began quickly building  cheap cities homes (jammed together) to accommodate the rapid growth in population (this added to the widespread sewage issue) o Disease – because of the filthy living conditions disease ran rampant and  people fell ill to unsanitary based diseases: typhus, typhoid fever, cholera,  influenza (killed many people) o Diets – working class lived primarily on bread, potatoes, beer, tea, lard,  and bacon, they didn’t have much access to meat (when they bought it, it  was usually spoiled), their diets were very fatty/pro­carbohydrate, most  working people didn’t have stoves, they had to cook over fireplaces, they  usually only had one pot to cook everything and bathe babies in  Labor conditions – work in the industrial era was very different than in the  preindustrial era, which was “task oriented,” in the industrial era people were  working many, many more hours, later the government and labor unions tried to  intervene and cut back work hours to 13­14 hours a day January 25­29, 2016 o Inside the factory people didn’t really know each other (they really only  knew the manager who made sure they kept working, discipline was pretty harsh (they beat people for slacking off), industrial accidents were  prevalent (many people lost limbs or even died) o Everyone in the family worked (including women and children), they are  split up and worked where they could find work, industrialization did not  mean employment (the employment was very unstable), conditions were  especially bad for women and children, they were used more in textile  factories and in the mining industry (their hands/bodies were smaller and  they were paid way less), grueling labor kept children out of school  Changes in the social structure of Europe – preindustrial was very hierarchically  arranged, the aristocrats dominated the government, economy, etc. o Decline of the aristocracy – industrialization was a big blow to the  aristocrats, the wealth was not worth as much anymore, the big money was in owning factories/industrial businesses, big time entrepreneurs,  merchants, and business owners became the wealthy of this era (they took  over the power and eclipsed the aristocracy), it’s not over for the  aristocrats, but this was the start of the decline  o Rise of a proletariat – a working class in a modern industrial sense, they  work in big factories, don’t know anyone they work with, lives are very  hard, paid wages (they have all the problems previously discussed) o The rise of the middle class – it used to be small, but it became a lot bigger and made more money, made out big with industrialization, become a  force in society (ranged from super wealthy entrepreneurs to professionals  to small business owners, etc.), based on the wealth they accumulate  during industrialization o Victorian Womanhood – Queen Victoria reigned for most of the 19   th century (ruled the longest), the middle class really came into it’s own (it  dominated), the middle class’s values and ideas came to be practiced  throughout society, in their homes (using textiles) they could wall off the  outside, the Victorian home came to be known as an “escape” from the  ugly industrial world, people’s dress was very layered (they showed little  to no skin), this was the great age of the corset   “Stay at home Victorian mother and wife” – the wife should stay at home to take care of the home and family, create a warm/safe  environment at home for the family (this was seen as a status  symbol: they had enough money for her to stay at home and not  work in the factories), the wife could focus on the domestic sphere  Responses to the problems of industrial society – not all that horror happened  without people pointing it out January 25­29, 2016 o Luddites: protested industrialization and the rise of the machine, they took  mallets and hammers and attacked machines to try and break them (today  it refers to people against technology) o Unions: they were able to form and argue for better conditions for the  proletariat  o Government Reforms – as a response to the unions, the government made  new laws to try and make the working class’ life a little bit better  Age of ideology – Conservatism, Liberalism, Socialism – shaped by  Enlightenment ideas: o Natural law – impact of the scientific revolution (gravity/inertia), Isaac  Newton’s work demonstrated that the universe is like a clock that operates  according to natural law (gravity/inertia), people believed the economy  should be self regulating according to natural law, things function on their  th th own [very powerful idea in 18  and 19  century] o Reason – there is a rational order to the universe, the natural laws are  rational, orderly, and predictable, they can be understood, this paves the  way for societal progress o Progress – becomes a cultural value, people celebrated change that they  felt was progress in nature  o Natural rights – this idea emerged in the West with John Locke, there are  certain rights that are part of the state of nature/order (there are certain  rights built in), life + liberty + property (pursuit of happiness)  All of these ideas had an impact on the Revolution (they drove the  Revolution) and they continue to drive political discourse in the  following centuries  Conservatism: is a political ideology that is closely related with the aristocracy  o Included a reluctance to see major changes, many were aristocrats who did not like the Enlightenment, they were anti­reform/revolution, hated the  French revolution   Edmund Burke: Englishman, wrote “Reflections on the Revolution  in France,” he was horrified by the ideas of the revolution and the  Enlightenment – he believed rights were earned over time  (especially through families), he preferred the idea of tradition,  Anarchy o The conservatives dominated the Congress of Vienna (that’s why the  outcome was conservative for the most part)  The excesses of the French Revolution (had gotten so extreme) –  discredited a lot of the Enlightenment ideas 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.