Psychology Notes Week 2
Psychology Notes Week 2 1557
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Manos Akillas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 11) in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
General Psychology Week 2 January 26th and 28th Specialty Areas within Psychology: Clinical & Industrial-Organizational Clinical and Counseling -Diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems -Work in hospitals and/or private practices. Also may be teaching and/or doing research at Universities. -Focus on diagnosis and treatment (therapies) -40% of all psychologies Industrial-Organizational -Application of psychology at the workplace, marketing, advertising, etc. -Work for private corporations. Also may be teaching and/or doing research at Universities. -Interested in using psychology principles and knowledge in the workplace -Human resources department, employee conflicts, designing the work environment. -Guide companies on attracting consumers through things like advertising *Both Clinical and Industrial-Organizational apply psychology principles in their workplace and use it to solve problems→ Applied areas Specialty Areas within Psychology: Academic and Research Specialties -Learning→ involves understanding the process of how species (animals) learn -Motivation and Emotion→ interested in causes of motivation & emotions ex.) feelings triggering behaviors -Cognition→ focus on understanding thinking and higher level learning ex.) human memory and creativity -Developmental→ study different levels (ages) of people ex.) A 5 year old boy versus a 20 year old male -Physiological→ Psychology and biology, how the brain influences behaviors -Social→ study people in groups ex.) interactions, behaviors sparked by social contact -Comparative→ interested in animal behaviors *species specific *These are not applied specialities, they focus on producing knowledge (mostly from something specific). General Psychology Week 2 January 26th and 28th Research Methods 1. Common sense vs. scientific knowledge a. Knowledge from life experiences vs. knowledge obtained from specific studies. The difference is that scientific knowledge goes through active evaluation by conducting research. 2. True experiments a. Experimental and Control groups - Experimental→ exposed group - Control→ not exposed group b. Random Assignment: -Must find ways to factor out personal qualities that may sway the results of the study such as intelligence level. c. Independent and Dependent Variables -Independent→ what you’re studying -Dependent→ the results 3. Quasi-experiments: a. The groups are not divided randomly, they are pre-existing. These experiments are never as good as true experiments because it can never be certain that they results are caused by the difference being studied. ex.) damaged brain vs. healthy brain, male vs. female 4. Reactivity a. You can never be certain of the results of experiments because there is a natural human reaction to try and figure out what the experiment is, which sways the results. b. Humans know when they’re being studied and tend to behave differently. 5. In-depth Case Studies a. Focus on one or a few people and study them very closely. b. There is no control group, which gives the conclusions a different type of certainty. Theories of Learning: Pavlovian Conditioning -Pavlov was a psychologist that was interested in the digestive system of dogs -Wanted to know how much saliva is generated when food is present in the mouth -Conducted an experiment on dogs 1. Connected a tube to the saliva gland in their mouths. 2. Collected the saliva into tubs and measured it. General Psychology Week 2 January 26th and 28th -This experiment caused him to wonder how the dogs started salivating before the food was present -Then went on to conduct experiments causing conditioning of the dogs: -In Pavlov’s experiment he discovered that the animal learns that two stimuli go together, which in this case is the bell and food. -The bell is the conditioned stimulus (learned in the experiment) and the food is the unconditioned stimulus (not learned in the experiment, it has the trigger ability regardless of the bell). -The dogs acquired the connection between the bell and the food, which caused salivation. -Then, the dogs were taught to extinct the connection between the bell and food. Acquisition: discovering that the bell and food go together (learning the connection) Extinction: discovering that the bell and food don’t go together (unlearning the connection) Even though a behavior has been extinct, the association still remains to a certain degree for a short period of time. Pavlov continued to see this in his experiment with the dogs . General Psychology Week 2 January 26th and 28th Pavlov started to introduce bells with different sounds, and caused the dogs to make a generalization and discrimination between all of them. Generalization: finding a similarity between the bell sounds and generating the same salivating response. Discrimination: Training the animal to only salivate to the sound of bell #1, not #2. Theories of Learning: Instrumental or Operant Conditioning Edward Lee Thorndike -Classic experiment -Placed a cat within a cage and had food put outside of it. There was a button on the inside of the cage that would allow the door to open for the cat to get out. The cat ended up pressing the button accidentally amongst his panic. After repeating this process several times, Thorndike was able to get the cat to gradually learn the process. -Acquisition and extinction -The gradual learning of the cat in the experiment is acquisition. -Concept of ‘trial and error’ and theory of thinking -The repeating of the cycle is how the cat finally learned, which is trial and error. -Law of effect -If an animal/human does something and that behavior has pleasant consequences, that behavior is more than likely to occur again. General Psychology Week 2 January 26th and 28th Criticism of Thorndike’s work -Wolfgang Kohler’s experiment -Kohler conducted a similar experiment with a monkey in attempt to disprove Thorndike’s ideas. He did this by putting a monkey in a cage with boxes, and hanging a banana overtop of his head out of reach. The monkey placed the boxes on top of each other and climbed up to the banana. *Thorndike argued that monkey’s have an intuition to climb, with the experiment proving nothing. Theories of Learning: Behaviorism John Broadus Watson -Criticism of Introspection -Watson criticised the method of introspection (ex- showing someone a cup of coffee and asking them to tell you what comes to mind) because he believed that anything that can’t be observed (thoughts, feelings) should be referred to as non-existent. This method generates no consistent information because people’s thoughts can’t be observed. -Methodological behaviorism -Used to differentiate between other forms of behaviorism. Burrhus Frederic Skinner -Radical behaviorism -Behaviors that can’t be observed but do exist (thoughts, feelings), but the only difference between them and the observable behaviors is that they are internal behaviors, not overt behaviors; however they obey the same principles. -Law of Reinforcement -If a behavior has certain consequences and because of those consequences the behavior becomes more frequent, then it can be said that the consequences reinforced the behavior. -Positive and negative reinforcement; punishment -Positive: The person/animal gets something. ex) A dog gets a treat for doing something. -Negative: Something is taken away (which is the reward). ex) If you get an A on all exams, you don’t have to take the final. -Punishment: Behavior becomes less frequent/stops because you’re taking away something pleasant. -Determinism and social control General Psychology Week 2 January 26th and 28th Motivation: Early Theories -Instinct Theory→ views biological or genetic programming as the cause of motivation. Problem: every time they couldn’t find how a behavior was learned they called it an instinct. -Drive Theory→ developed as a replacement for instinct theory stating that all behavior is based off of 4 primary drives. -Primary drives: hunger, thirst, sex, aggression *biologically determined, not learned* -Pavlovian conditioning and secondary drives -other drives are learned based off of the primary drives -Functionally autonomous drives -Criticism of Drive Theory -Harry F. Harlow’s experiment -Harlow took infant monkeys and placed them with wire mothers or cloth mothers. The wire mother held the food, and the cloth mother didn’t have any food. The monkeys developed an attachment to the cloth mother, which a 5th primary drive of comfort was added.
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