PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 3 notes
PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 3 notes Psych 3070
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3070 at Bowling Green State University taught by Patrick Nebl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
PSYCH 3070 Human Sexuality Spring Semester 2016 o Seminal Vesicles Make up 70 of semen uid Fructose activates sperm Prostadlandins cause uterine contraction Bases neutralize vaginal acidity Added right before ejaculation o Prostate gland Make up 30 of semen uid Same uids as seminal vesicles plus fibrinogenase which coagulates semen and antibiotic Coagulates Less liquidybetter chance of being retained by the female 0 Increase the likelihood that the sperm will make it to where it s supposed to be Added right before ejaculation o Cowper s Gland Bulbourethral Gland 2 very small structures beneath the prostate Secrete a few drops of alkaline uid that often appears at tip of penis prior to ejaculation Bulbourethral Gland Neutralize normal acidity of the urethra allowing sperms to pass through the penis The penis is also acidic so this neutralizes the path through the male May be referred to as quotprecumquot Endocrinology o What is the endocrine system 0 Endocrine glands in the body produce hormones Chemical messengers released into the bloodstream Bind to speci c receptors similar to neurotransmitters but can act over a greater distance and temporal range Communicate through chemicals in the blood 0 Parts of the endocrine system 0 Hypothalamus Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid Adrenal glands Pancreas Gut Gonads o Endocrine system function OOOOOOO O Homeostasis and digestion Sleep and circadian rhythms Stress response Fight or ight responses Social behavior Sexual differentiation Reproductive behavior 0 Parenting behavior 0 History 0 Castration surgical removal of the testes has historically been the most 0 Domesticated animals were regularly castrated to make them easier to control 0 Some knowledge that castration had some effect on psychology 0 Eunuchs human males with testes removed before puberty were employed to guard women for other men or as singers Males would never develop beards would never have a deepening of the voice be shorter fat distribution would be different and not have typical sexual behaviors They would guard the woman because their man knows he will not have sex with her Berthold s Experiment 0 The rst formal endocrine experiment 0 Removed chickens testicles Group 1 removes testicles competey Group 2 removed the testicles and put them back on the same chicken Group 3 removed the testicles of one chicken and replaced them with those from another chicken 0 Found out that if the chicken had no testicles it would become a female chicken 0 If the rooster had its own or another chicken s testicles it would become a rooster o HypothalamicPituitaryGonadalAxis o The system of communication between these 3 endocrine gands as one 0 Functions Sexua dimorphism and differentiation Sexual behaviors Reproduction Sperm production in males 0 The ovulatory cycle and egg release in females 0 The Hypothalamus Located just below the thalamus and above the brainstem CO 000 Receives projections from various brain regions Many subnuclei integrate this information Neurosecretory cells located at the base 0 Thyrotropinreleasing hormone 0 Growth hormone releasing hormone o Melatotropinreleasing hormone Corticotropinreleasing hormone Gonadotropinreleasing hormone 0 Do not need to know all the releasing hormones o The Pituitary quotMaster Glandquot Anterior 0 From roof of mouth Posterior Form base of the brain 0 Posterior Pituitary They hold oxytocin and vasopressin Hormones manufactured in hypothalamus Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei don t need to know Axons from these cells run through the posterior pituitary where they are stored In a nutshell bundle of neurons that originate from the hypothalamus neurons that contain oxytocin hang out here 0 Oxytocin Involved in the process of releasing milk in a female 0 Anterior Pituitary Receives releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus Gonadotropinreleasing hormone from medial preoptic nucleus Gonadotropinreleasing hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete Luteinizing Hormone LH and Follicle Stimulation Hormone FSH Prolactin also produced in anterior pituitary o The Testes LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce androgens testosterone Increases maletypical hormones FSH stimulates spermatogenesis Seminiferous tubules Sertoli cells 0 Increased production of sperm 0 Male and female gonads lnhibin Made in the follicle in females and seminiferous tubules in males 0 lnhibits FSH in the anterior pituitary Activin Made in granulosa cells in females and Sertoli cells in males 0 Stimulates FSH in the anterior pituitary Both can communicate backwards Not a linear communicationprogression The Ovaries o Follicle 0 Groups of cells surrounding each egg Corpora lutea 0 Structure that develops from follicle after the egg is released Stroma 0 Supporting tissue The Ovulatory Cycle 0 Approximately 28 days long 0 Day 1 is the rst day of menstrual bleeding and typically lasts 35 days 1 Follicular Phase 0 Following the end of menstrual bleeding GnRH release causes FSH and LH to rise for 10 days FSH causes the primary ovarian follicle to mature and secrete estrogen thecal cells 0 After a week of gradually there is a sharp rise in estrogen for a week 2 Ovulation Positive feedback of estrogen causes a surge in LH levels 0 Positive feedback of LH causes GnRH causing the fully mature follicle Graa an follicle to shrink increase in LH and release the ovum into the fallopian tube 0 Estrogen levels fall 0 3 Luteal Phase 0 Corpus luteum quotyellow bodyquot develops from the follicle formerly surrounding the egg 0 Corpus luteum produces and levels rise o If conception does not occur corpus luteum will shrink in 1012 days and progesterone levels will fall 0 Egg is just going down the fallopian tube 4 Menstruation Decrease in progesterone triggers menstruation Endometrium inner uterine membrane is discharged over 35 days In the estrous cycle the endometrium is being reabsorbed Menstruation is the endometrium being released Human Estrus and Adaptations to Ovulation Estrus 0 Found in nearly all placental mammals Behavioral 0 Increase in sexual activity and receptivity corresponding to the period of fertility surrounding ovulation 0 Physiological o Conspicuous changes in physical appearance which indicate the female s sexual receptivity and fertility 0 Shows the female is ovulating Estrus lost in humans Humans have sex consistently across the ovulatory cycle 0 Extended sexuality 0 Also true for bonobos and chimps but frequency does change in wild Humans display no conspicuous signs of ovulation o Bonobos and chimps do have sexual swellings may have been lost in hominid line 0 Concealed ovulation present in some other monogamous species such as vervet monkeys Humans are the only species who don t display at least one component Ovulatory cycle Mammals display a variety of ovulatory cycles 0 Only fertile 1 or 2 times a year with seasonal changes domestic dogs 0 Cycles as short as 45 days and recurrent lab rats 0 Ovulation induced by intromission or pheromones Whitten Effect prairie voles o In humans 28 days long and asynchronis Wilcox Weinberg and Baird 1995 Ovulation occurs on day 14 Dramatic change in likelihood on conception 0 8 36 day of ovulation and 5 days prior 0 extremely unlikely outside of this window 012 95Cl Hypotheses of Concealed Ovulation The Paternity Confusion Hypothesis 0 Dereived from research and observation of chimpanzee 0 Females mating with multiple males and having concealed ovulation reduces the likelihood of paternal infanticide Many partners but the males don t know if the child is his so he will not be violent against it o Unlikely to be true in humans Polyandry very uncommon in humans 1 of preindustrial cultures attributed to harsh environment in HimalayasTibet Extended sexuality keeps male partners around Concealed ovulation leads to constant mate guarding o Promotes commitment and investment from males Biparental care important 0 Extended sexuality found in pairbonded birds and old world primates o Sillen Tullberg and Moller 1993 Phylogenic analysis Concealed ovulation promotes monogamy The Cuckoldry Hypothesis 0 Based on successful mating strategy found in birds such as warbles 0 Females secure longterm mate who is willing to invest 0 Females then nd a male with good genes and cuckold their partner into raising the offspring o Allows for female sire selection 0 You get good genes and then a good man to take care of the kids How do we measure probability of conception o LuteinizingHormone Test Actuarial Method Counting ForwardsBackwards Salivary Ferning Evidence of Physiological changes Olfactorv Cues o VNO nonfunctioning o Humans scent produced from sex organs and armpits near face 0 Produce more substances then almost all primates o Glands uctuate with ovulation Auditory Cues o Estrogen and progesterone receptors in the larynx o More estrogen closer to ovulation increases you voice pitch 0 Visual Cues 0 Skin becomes clearer and lighter o Waisttohip ratio decreases around ovulation OO 0 Symmetry of soft tissue such as ears and digits uctuates across cycle 30 decrease in asymmetry on he day of ovulation Mating behavior Frequency of sex doesn t change but sexrelated behaviors do Initiate more intercourse Heightened arousability Increased irtation Evidence for behavioral changes Mate preferences 0 More preference for masculine faces around ovulation Scent preference for masculine males Scent preference for symmetrical males 0 Preference for lower pitch voice 0 All near ovulation slight preference for masculinity Extrapair copulations 0 Increased likelihood of in delity A case for human estrus Females display physiological changes near ovulation that are detectable by males 0 Females behavioral patterns change near ovulation speci cally matingrelated behaviors Estrus may not be quotlostquot in humans rather it is concealed Possibly supporting the Cuckoldry Hypothesis
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