PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, week 3 notes
PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, week 3 notes Psych 3110
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3110 at Bowling Green State University taught by Joshua Ricker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, Spring Semester 2016 Week 3 The Self Most humans don’t develop a sense of self until about 18-24 months old Self-concept- the overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes Did not change “True self”: Physical declines Minor cognitive deficits New preferences Changed “True self”: Moral transformation Cultural influences Independent view of the self- a way of defining oneself in terms of one’s own internal thought, feelings, and actions o Not in terms of thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people o Individualistic cultures Interdependent view of the self- a way of defining oneself in terms of one’s relationships to other people o You recognize one’s behavior is determined by thoughts and actions of others o Collectivistic cultures Functions of the self 4 main functions o self knowledge o self control o impressions management o self esteem Self awareness theory When people focus their attention on themselves, they compare their behavior to internal values When there is a discrepancy between beliefs/behaviors, you: o Get in a bad mood o Do something to change it o Ignore it o Turn to adverse behaviors o Turn to a “happy place” Change how we feel Reason-generated attitude change- attitude change resulting from thinking about the reason for one’s own attitude o Weighing pros and cons Happens due to: o Thinking of reasons that aren’t true reflections of your attitude o Talking yourself into believing this is how you feel Observing one’s behavior Self-perception theory- when your attributes are ambiguous, we observe our behavior to infer how we feel Motivation Your mindset about your abilities can influence your motivation Fixed mindset- we have a set amount of ability that cannot change Growth mindset- abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow Emotion Two-factor theory of emotion- emotion is a 2 step self perception process o 1. Experience physiological arousal o 2. Seek appropriate explanation Sometimes physiological states are difficult to interpret, so we rely on cues from the situation Misattribution of arousal- people make mistaken inferences about what makes them feel a certain way Dutton & Aron (1974) Hot girl asking guys to fill out a questionnaire and gave them her phone number to call if they had any questions Gave them the questionnaire on a bridge or when they are across the bridge Measuring the amount of calls she gets Across the bridge-not as many phone calls More phone calls when they were on the bridge Using other to evaluate ourselves Social comparison theory- we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to others Done when: o No objective standard o We are uncertain Not knowing how much to donate to a charity Upward of downward social comparisons Social tuning- the process whereby people adopt the attitudes of others Self control Self control requires energy Depletion effects may inhibit out abilities to exert self control When you have some sort of cognitive energy worn down, getting tired Thought suppression has been proven to be an ineffective method Impression management The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen Techniques: o Ingratiation- bombard the other person with confidence (ass kissing) o Self handicapping- give yourself an excuse for failure Behavioral Reported- making excuses before hand (not feeling well, being shy) Self protective mechanism Self esteem People’s evaluations of their own self-worth Terror management theory- self-esteem serves as a buffer protecting people from terrifying thoughts about their own mortality o Constantly thinking about death (low self esteem) o People with high self esteem don’t think about this Narcissism- the combination of excessive self-love and lack of empathy towards others Conformity/Group Behavior Conformity- a change in a person’s behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure form a person or group of people o Can be adaptive or maladaptive A: Laws M: cult behavior o Desirable or undesirable o Don’t conform=deviant o Do conform=can’t think for themselves Social reality Sometimes, we use the group’s behavior to supply us with information When physical reality is uncertain, we rely on social reality o Solomon Asch’s Conformity Study Amygdala Factors influencing conformity 1. Unanimity - If there is just one other person who goes against the group, conformity decreases - They don’t even have to agree with you 2. Commitment - committing to your initial judgment decreases the likelihood of conformity 3. Accountability - increases conformity - *unless accurate/good decisions are needed 4. The person / culture - low self esteem=conform (not high self esteem) - if not good at the task=conform - security=non-conformity - collectivistic=conform (not individualistic) 5. The group - experts and those similar to us have influence Social influence William James- emotions have a “feeling” component and a “cognitive” component o We fear because we run, we don’t run because were scared Schachter and Singer o We will even conform when interpreting our emotions o Getting injected with adrenaline and being told the symptoms o Confederates would act differently, and the people who were told about the side effects, they didn’t show any difference in emotions o When people weren’t told about the side effects, they either felt good or bad like the confederates Types of conformity Thornedike’s Law of Effect- rewarded behaviors are likely to occur again. Punished behaviors are not likely to occur Compliance- conformity done to gain reward or avoid punishment o Dictator o Lasts as long as the rewards / punishment is around o Least permanent, least strong in the terms of beliefs o POWER Secondary gain- something else that could lead to the behavior lasting longer o Stop smoking and getting clearer lungs Identification- conformity brought about by desire to be like the influencer o Behavior itself Is not satisfying o What is satisfying is improving our relationship with the influencer Same political beliefs as your father o Person doesn’t have to be there o Beliefs remain consistent, you will still be like them o If something better comes along, you will use that group o More permanent and strong than compliances but not as strong as internalization o ATTRACTIVENESS Internalization- integrating the beliefs of another into our own beliefs o Religion o Very permanent o Probably won’t change beliefs o Done if the other person has great influence o CREDIBILITY The situation The situation itself also makes us conform o Social norms will influence our behavior o Swim and Hayes, 1999 Milgram’s Obedience Study Bonus- watch the movie, The Experimenter, due by exam 2, 1 page double spaced about a reaction to the movie, 10 pts
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