PSYC 203 Introduction to Human Development Lecture Notes
PSYC 203 Introduction to Human Development Lecture Notes PSYC 203
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angela Potter on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 203 at Towson University taught by Kim Shifren in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Week 1 Introduction to the Study of Human Development Periods of the Life Span Prenatal: ConceptionBirth Infancy and Toddlerhood: Birth 3 years Early Childhood: 36 years Middle Childhood: 611 years Adolescence: 1120 years Young Adulthood: 2040 Middle Adulthood: 4065 Late Adulthood: 65 years and older Domains of Development Change & Stability Physical Development Body, brain, senses, motor skills, & health Cognitive Development Learning, memory, moral reasoning, language, thinking, & creativity Psychosocial Development Personality, emotional life, & relationships Baltes’s Life Span Approach: 6 Key Principles Development is lifelong Develoopment is multidimensional Development is multidirectional Development involves changing resource allocations Development shows plasticity Development is influenced by the historical and cultural context Context of Development: Family What is a family?…… Depends! Great changes Over time Place to place Nuclear Family Two generations: parents and children Economic unit, history in farming Dominant in Western societies Increasing numbers of Working parents Stepchildren Gay/Lesbian Homes Single Parents Contexts of Development: Socioeconomic Status (SES) Includes income, education & occupation Poor children more likely to: Have emotional & behavior problems Not reach cognitive potential Have poorer school performance Low Socioeconomic Status Related Risk Factors Povertyrelated risks that increase chance of negative outcome include: Living in neighborhoods with high unemployment Lack of social support Social support is less likely in highunemployment neighborhoods Contexts of Development: Culture Culture A way of life Includes: Customs Traditions Artwork `Learned behavior, passed on to children Contexts of Development: Race & Ethnicity Ethnic Group: A shared identity United by ancestry, religion, or origin Contributes to shared attitudes and beliefs Race: a socially constructed term Scholars have no real consensus on definition Categories ‘fluid’ shaped by society and politics Ethnic Gloss Overgeneralization that obscures cultural differences within a group Examples: ‘black’ or ‘hispanic’ Context of Development: Historical Context Unique time in which people live and grow up Experiences tied to time and place: Great Depression World War II The “Sixties” 911 Attack AgeGraded Normative Influences Similar for an age group Maturational: Fixed in time Puberty or menopause Social: Timing is flexible Marriage or parenthood Normative History Graded Influences Events that shape attitudes of a historical generation Historical generation: A group that experiences an event at a formative time Example: WWII children have strong social bond to each other Cohort: Group born around the same time A historical generation can have many cohorts Non Normative Influences Unusual events affecting individuals lives Typical events a atypical times Puberty at age 20 Marriage in teens Atypical Events Birth defect Winning the lottery Timing of Influences Imprinting Instinctively following first moving object seen after birth; usually mother Konrad Lorenz & his ducklings Indicates predisposition or readiness to learn Timing of Influences: Critical & Sensitive Periods Critical Period Specific time when an event (or its absence) has specific impact on development Sensitive Period Developmental timing when child is particularly response to certain experiences Timing of Influences: Plasticity of Development Modifiability of performance Plasticity last through life span, but has limits Example: Limits and process of Genie
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